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John Turner, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Tony Phillips, Gareth J. Marshall, and J. Scott Hosking

1. Introduction Since the late 1970s sea ice extent (SIE) around the Antarctic continent has increased at a statistically significant rate ( Comiso and Nishio 2008 ; Turner et al. 2009 ; Zwally et al. 2002 ). This is in marked contrast to the ice conditions over the Arctic Ocean, where there has been a sharp decline over the same period ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ). The reasons for the overall increase in Antarctic SIE over the last 30 years are still under debate. Turner et al. (2009) carried

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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

1. Introduction Changes in the Arctic sea-ice extent have been dramatic; in particular, the September Arctic sea-ice extent has been rapidly decreasing and its year-to-year variations of sea-ice concentration over the marginal seas to the northern coast of Alaska and Siberia have declined since 1979. The September sea-ice concentrations over the marginal seas not only exhibit a decreasing trend but also are correlated with the variations in September sea-ice extent over the entire Arctic Ocean

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Zili Shen, Anmin Duan, Dongliang Li, and Jinxiao Li

1. Introduction Sea ice plays a key role in the global climate system. It can change the surface albedo and prevent heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, acting as a barrier between them ( Screen and Simmonds 2010 ; Screen and Blackport 2019 ; Serreze and Barry 2011 ; Stroeve et al. 2012a ). As assessed from satellite data, Arctic sea ice has been declining in all months, and the largest declining trend occurs in September. The years 2012 and 2020 marked record lows for September

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Courtenay Strong, Gudrun Magnusdottir, and Hal Stern

Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and a weak but nonnegligible influence of tropical and extratropical SST on the NAO has been found ( Marshall et al. 2001 ; Kushnir et al. 2002 ; Czaja et al. 2003 ; Mosedale et al. 2006 ). There are also important interactions between the NAO and winter sea ice on synoptic to decadal time scales. As the leading mode of variability, the NAO might be expected to exert an influence on the spatial distribution of winter sea ice via wind-driven anomalies of sea

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Lei Wang, Xiaojun Yuan, Mingfang Ting, and Cuihua Li

1. Introduction Recent Arctic sea ice changes have important societal and economical impacts: the accelerated melting of Arctic sea ice in summer (e.g., Parkinson and Cavalieri 2008 ; Simmonds 2015 ) provides new fishery opportunities and increases the feasibility of trans-Arctic shipping (e.g., Eicken 2013 ), yet it may also lead to adverse effects on the Arctic ecosystem, weather, and climate (e.g., Serreze et al. 2007 ; Yang et al. 2015, submitted to J. Climate ). Past studies have been

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Adrienne Tivy, Stephen E. L. Howell, Bea Alt, John J. Yackel, and Thomas Carrieres

1. Introduction September ice extent in the Arctic has declined by approximately 10% decade −1 between 1979 and 2007 (e.g., Comiso et al. 2008 ). This dramatic loss of ice has fueled interest in the seasonal predictability of sea ice, both regionally and Arctic wide, as a means to isolate the main internal and external climate forcings. Regionally, with the exception of the Bering Sea, the greatest reductions have occurred in Hudson Bay ( Parkinson and Cavalieri 2008 ). Over the same period

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Qigang Wu and Xiangdong Zhang

sea surface temperature (SST) in the extratropics have a profound effect on the southern annular mode [SAM, also called Antarctic Oscillation (AAO); Thompson and Wallace 1998 ] ( Watterson 2001 ; Marshall and Connolley 2006 ; Sen Gupta and England 2007 ). Sea ice is also an active component in the climate system. Not only is it sensitive to dynamic and thermodynamic forcings from overlying atmosphere and underlying ocean, it also modulates atmospheric and oceanic circulations through altered

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Andrew G. Pauling, Cecilia M. Bitz, Inga J. Smith, and Patricia J. Langhorne

1. Introduction Sea ice is a critical component of Earth’s climate, controlling ocean–atmosphere heat exchange and driving deep ocean convection ( Vaughan et al. 2013 ). It plays an important role in the global climate because of the sea ice–albedo feedback, which has been a major factor in the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice extent ( Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). Earth is warming ( Vaughan et al. 2013 ), including the upper 700 m of the Southern Ocean ( Gille 2008 ), although sea surface

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Joe M. Osborne, James A. Screen, and Mat Collins

1. Introduction The recent loss of Arctic sea ice ( Stroeve et al. 2012a , b ) has been one of the most notable aspects of late twentieth-century and early twenty-first century climate change. A robust human contribution to the observed (1979 onward) Arctic sea ice loss has been detected ( Min et al. 2008 ; Kay et al. 2011 ), especially since the early 1990s when the rate of decline increased ( Comiso 2012 ). It is predicted that Arctic sea ice will continue to decline, with a seasonally ice

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Seungmok Paik, Seung-Ki Min, Yeon-Hee Kim, Baek-Min Kim, Hideo Shiogama, and Joonghyeok Heo

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice has been melting at an accelerating rate ( Meier et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ). The Arctic regions have been the focus of many climate change studies, since climate signals are expected to be amplified by ice and snow albedo feedback over Arctic regions ( Holland and Bitz 2003 ). The Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) decline has been largely attributed to anthropogenic influence ( Hegerl et al. 2007 ; Min et al. 2008 ). Wang and Overland (2009 , 2012

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