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Kaitlin A. Naughten, Katrin J. Meissner, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi, Matthew H. England, Ralph Timmermann, and Hartmut H. Hellmer

number of ocean models that simulate ice shelf thermodynamics in this manner [see Dinniman et al. (2016) and references therein], but future projections with these models have so far been limited. By forcing FESOM with atmospheric output from the CMIP5 experiments, we obtain projections of ice shelf melt rates throughout the twenty-first century, as well as continental shelf water mass properties, sea ice processes, and Southern Ocean circulation. FESOM has previously been used for future

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Sunke Schmidtko and Gregory C. Johnson

1. Introduction Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is a very prominent water mass that lies above the deep water and spreads below the subtropical thermocline in the Southern Hemisphere. AAIW has long been identified by a pronounced salinity minimum from 600- to 1000-m depth ( Wüst 1936 , 1–288) found north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in all three oceans ( Fig. 1 ). McCartney (1977) suggested that AAIW is formed primarily in the southeast Pacific Ocean just equatorward of the

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Richard G. Williams, Chris Wilson, and Chris W. Hughes

the ocean, eddy activity appears to be similarly localized and persistent. Local maxima in eddy kinetic energy (EKE) broadly reflect where there are strong time-mean currents, along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Southern Ocean and over the extension of western boundary currents into the interior of ocean basins. The starting point of this study is the assumption that ocean eddy variability is primarily formed through baroclinic instability ( Gill et al. 1974 ), although over some

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Andrés Antico, Olivier Marchal, Lawrence A. Mysak, and Françoise Vimeux

detailed description of the model is given in AMM10 . Only a brief overview of the model components is provided here, except for the hydrological cycle. The zonally averaged ocean circulation model of Wright and Stocker (1992) is implemented in four basins (Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans) and coupled to a zonally averaged one-dimensional (latitudinal) energy balance model of the atmosphere. This atmospheric component is extended here to include a simple representation of an active

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Emily Shuckburgh, Helen Jones, John Marshall, and Chris Hill

kinetic energy are seen to coincide throughout much of the extratropical ocean with the locations of mean frontal structures, suggesting the eddies extract energy from the mean flow predominantly through baroclinic instability ( Stammer 1997 ) [this is also consistent with the findings of modeling studies: e.g., Jayne and Marotzke (2002) ; Best et al. (1999) for the Southern Ocean]. The eddy activity is observed to exhibit considerable temporal variability ( Stammer and Wunsch 1999 ; Stammer et al

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Brady S. Ferster, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Ichiro Fukumori, and Ebenezer S. Nyadjro

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean (SO) is a major driving force in global climate and is an essential component in the global-scale meridional overturning circulation’s (MOC) distribution of heat, mass, and freshwater. Strong westerly winds drive the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) across the three major ocean basins ( Rintoul and Naveira Garabato 2013 ) and interact with eddies and jets to transfer energy and momentum from the ocean surface to the ocean floor ( Moore et al. 2000

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Antoine Venaille, Geoffrey K. Vallis, and K. Shafer Smith

-resolution, eddy-rich ocean global circulation model simulation, we ask, to what extent is the steady-state eddy field at a particular location consistent with a homogeneous model of mesoscale turbulence? To address this question, we analyze the output from the 1/6° run of the Modeling Eddies in the Southern Ocean (MESO) project ( Hallberg and Gnanadesikan 2006 ), a series of simulations using an isopycnal primitive equation (PE) model. We consider first the statistical and structural properties of the eddy

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J. R. E. Lutjeharms

VOLUME 12 JOURNAL OF pHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY JANUARY 1982Baroclinic Volume Transport in the Southern Ocean J. R. E. LUTJEHARMS~Department of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, W.4 98195(Manuscript received 26 February 1979, in final form 26 October 1981)ABSTRACT A new map of the baroclinic volume transport to 3000 m has been produced for the Southern Ocean,making use of all available historic

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Li Zhang, Bolan Gan, Lixin Wu, Wenju Cai, and Hao Ma

sensitivity of storm tracks to the latitude shift of an SST front at midlatitudes and they further pointed out the importance of the midlatitude oceanic frontal zone for the southern annular mode (SAM), the dominant mode of the midlatitude large-scale atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere ( Ogawa et al. 2016 ). On the other hand, transport of mean westerly momentum from the subtropics by synoptic eddies acts to maintain an equivalent barotropic structure of the subpolar jet stream, also known

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Wenju Cai, Arnold Sullivan, and Tim Cowan

1. Introduction The global climate is influenced by several major climate drivers, including the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Philander 1990 ), the southern annular mode (SAM, also called the Antarctic Oscillation) ( Wallace and Thompson 2002 ), and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) ( Saji et al. 1999 ; Webster et al. 1999 ). Using outputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3), recent studies have examined climate model simulations of the IOD ( Saji et al. 2006

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