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Andrés Antico, Olivier Marchal, Lawrence A. Mysak, and Françoise Vimeux

detailed description of the model is given in AMM10 . Only a brief overview of the model components is provided here, except for the hydrological cycle. The zonally averaged ocean circulation model of Wright and Stocker (1992) is implemented in four basins (Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans) and coupled to a zonally averaged one-dimensional (latitudinal) energy balance model of the atmosphere. This atmospheric component is extended here to include a simple representation of an active

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Emily Shuckburgh, Helen Jones, John Marshall, and Chris Hill

kinetic energy are seen to coincide throughout much of the extratropical ocean with the locations of mean frontal structures, suggesting the eddies extract energy from the mean flow predominantly through baroclinic instability ( Stammer 1997 ) [this is also consistent with the findings of modeling studies: e.g., Jayne and Marotzke (2002) ; Best et al. (1999) for the Southern Ocean]. The eddy activity is observed to exhibit considerable temporal variability ( Stammer and Wunsch 1999 ; Stammer et al

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Antoine Venaille, Geoffrey K. Vallis, and K. Shafer Smith

-resolution, eddy-rich ocean global circulation model simulation, we ask, to what extent is the steady-state eddy field at a particular location consistent with a homogeneous model of mesoscale turbulence? To address this question, we analyze the output from the 1/6° run of the Modeling Eddies in the Southern Ocean (MESO) project ( Hallberg and Gnanadesikan 2006 ), a series of simulations using an isopycnal primitive equation (PE) model. We consider first the statistical and structural properties of the eddy

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Brady S. Ferster, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Ichiro Fukumori, and Ebenezer S. Nyadjro

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean (SO) is a major driving force in global climate and is an essential component in the global-scale meridional overturning circulation’s (MOC) distribution of heat, mass, and freshwater. Strong westerly winds drive the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) across the three major ocean basins ( Rintoul and Naveira Garabato 2013 ) and interact with eddies and jets to transfer energy and momentum from the ocean surface to the ocean floor ( Moore et al. 2000

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Li Zhang, Bolan Gan, Lixin Wu, Wenju Cai, and Hao Ma

sensitivity of storm tracks to the latitude shift of an SST front at midlatitudes and they further pointed out the importance of the midlatitude oceanic frontal zone for the southern annular mode (SAM), the dominant mode of the midlatitude large-scale atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere ( Ogawa et al. 2016 ). On the other hand, transport of mean westerly momentum from the subtropics by synoptic eddies acts to maintain an equivalent barotropic structure of the subpolar jet stream, also known

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Wenju Cai, Arnold Sullivan, and Tim Cowan

1. Introduction The global climate is influenced by several major climate drivers, including the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Philander 1990 ), the southern annular mode (SAM, also called the Antarctic Oscillation) ( Wallace and Thompson 2002 ), and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) ( Saji et al. 1999 ; Webster et al. 1999 ). Using outputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3), recent studies have examined climate model simulations of the IOD ( Saji et al. 2006

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J. R. E. Lutjeharms

VOLUME 12 JOURNAL OF pHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY JANUARY 1982Baroclinic Volume Transport in the Southern Ocean J. R. E. LUTJEHARMS~Department of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, W.4 98195(Manuscript received 26 February 1979, in final form 26 October 1981)ABSTRACT A new map of the baroclinic volume transport to 3000 m has been produced for the Southern Ocean,making use of all available historic

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Willem P. Sijp, Matthew H. England, and J. R. Toggweiler

a direct causal relationship. Furthermore, Huber et al. (2004) find no enhanced poleward heat transport (PHT) in their fully coupled model of the Eocene where the Tasman Seaway is closed and conclude that the opening of any Southern Ocean (SO) gateway is unlikely to have caused Antarctic glaciation. This view is further reinforced by the seminal modeling work of DeConto and Pollard (2003) , who examine the development of terrestrial Antarctic ice in a range of Cenozoic scenarios and also

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Wenju Cai, Peter van Rensch, and Tim Cowan

. Identifying factors that contribute to the variability and trend of the STR may lead to an attribution of the observed rainfall reduction. Australia’s rainfall is dominated by several remote large-scale modes of climate variability, such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (e.g., McBride and Nicholls 1983 ; Ropelewski and Halpert 1987 ), the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) (e.g., Ashok et al. 2003 ; Cai et al. 2009a ), and the southern annular mode (SAM) (e.g., Cai et al. 2003 ; Li et al. 2005 ; Cai

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Tatsuya Seiki and Woosub Roh

shortwave cloud radiative forcing (SWCRF) over the Southern Ocean ( Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2012 ; Williams et al. 2013 ). Bodas-Salcedo confirmed that the SWCRF bias mainly originated from underestimation of supercooled liquid water in low-level mixed-phase clouds. Large intermodal spread in supercooled liquid water over the mid- to high-latitude regions results in large uncertainties in cloud feedbacks (e.g., McCoy et al. 2015 ). The SWCRF bias mainly originates from poor representation of cloud

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