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Fei Chen and Roni Avissar

maximum precipitation. How6ver, interactions between shallow cumulus and land-surface moisture are highly nonlinear and complicated by differentfactors, such as atmospheric thermodynamic structure and large-scale background wind, This analysis alsoshowed that land-surface moisture discontinuities seem to play a more important role in a relatively dry atmosphere, and that the strongest precipitation is produced by a wavelength of land.surface forcing equivalentto the local Rossby radius ofdeformation

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Devdutta S. Niyogi, Sethu Raman, and Kiran Alapaty

., Res., 97, 18 837–18 844. Raman, S., and Coauthors, 1998: VEBEX: A Vegetation and Energy Balance Experiment for the Tropics. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Earth Planet. Sci., 107, 97–105. Randall, D., and Coauthors, 1996: A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for GCMs. Part III: The greening of the Colorado State University general circulation model. J. Climate, 9, 738–763. Raupach, M., 1991: Vegetation–atmosphere interaction in homogeneous and heterogeneous terrain: Some

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Yuqiong Liu, Luis A. Bastidas, Hoshin V. Gupta, and Soroosh Sorooshian

the multiple interactions between land surfaces and the atmosphere in terms of exchanging momentum, energy, water, and CO 2 fluxes ( Bonan 1996 ). The model allows for multiple surface types in a single grid cell, accounting for ecological differences among different vegetation types and optical, thermal, and hydraulic differences among different soil types. The atmospheric forcing terms of the model include incident direct and diffuse solar radiation, incident longwave radiation, convective and

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Lixin Lu, Roger A. Pielke Sr., Glen E. Liston, William J. Parton, Dennis Ojima, and Melannie Hartman

mesoscale and global-scale atmospheric models to study the potential effects of land surface processes on weather and climate. These land surface models, which are referred to as Simple Vegetation–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (SVATS) include the Biosphere–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) of Dickinson et al. (1986 , 1993) , the Simple Biosphere Scheme of Sellers et al. (1986) , the Simple SiB ( Xue et al. 1991 ), the Bare Essentials of Surface Transfer scheme ( Pitman 1991 ), the Interaction Soil–Biosphere–Atmosphere

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B. Bisselink and A. J. Dolman

system. Precipitation recycling can be described with a recycling ratio that essentially shows the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation. Precipitation in regions with a large “recycling ratio” is potentially susceptible to the underlying causes, such as in land cover and land use ( Eltahir and Bras 1996 ). Several precipitation recycling studies have been performed to define the role of land surface–atmosphere interactions. A considerable amount of these studies is based on the

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Andrea N. Hahmann

rainfall amounts, which are spatially homogeneous within the GCM grid square. Two types of responses are apparent in the model results. The first type results from local land–atmosphere interaction induced mainly by changes in rainfall interception by the canopy and their local feedbacks with the atmosphere. The second set of changes cannot be explained by local physical processes alone and appears to be a remote response in high latitudes to changes in precipitation and convective heating in the

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B. N. Gyoswami and J. Shukla

artificially fixed, this oscillation of the Hadley circulation disappears. Thus, this oscillation of theHadley circulation appears as a result of interactions between moist convective and dynamical proce~e~ A wave phenomenon is seen in the lower atmosphere that propagates toward the position of maximumradiative heating. This wave perturbation has a length scale of about 15-20 degrees latitude in the north-southdirection. This phenomenon has large amplitude over land and relatively small amplitude over

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Anna L. Merrifield and Shang-Ping Xie

(moisture limited) soil moisture (SM) “hot spot” regions like the central United States ( Koster et al. 2004a , b , 2006 ; Dirmeyer 2011 ; Berg et al. 2014 ). To describe relationships between the atmosphere and the land surface, we use “interaction” to refer to a general association between two variables, “coupling” to refer to the degree one variable controls another, and “feedback” to refer to a two-way coupling, following Lorenz et al. (2015) . For example, soil moisture–climate coupling refers

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Omar V. Müller, Ernesto Hugo Berbery, Domingo Alcaraz-Segura, and Michael B. Ek

-cover types and the consequent inadequate simulation of the land–atmosphere interactions. Vast areas are suffering from human-induced changes in land cover, with deforestation and land clearing for agriculture and cattle ranching being the most important ones ( Dros 2004 ; Paruelo et al. 2005 ). This study explores the use of a consistent set of annually varying biophysical properties of vegetation derived from satellite data as a replacement of the conventional land-cover types for southern South

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

review scoped appropriately for this American Meteorological Society (AMS) monograph and its readers, we provide greater focus on the theoretical underpinnings of surface processes, the atmosphere above, and the interactions within the land–atmosphere interface. During the last 100 years, we have seen a marked transition that has improved practical applications of hydrology through fundamental advancements in hydrologic science, including contributions to Earth system science ( Sivapalan 2018 ). As

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