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-sphere.Figure 4 may also be compared with the infrared coolingrates of London (1957). However, London accounted foraverage cloudiness whereas in the present study theatmosphere mas assumed cloud free.Figure 22 of Manabe and Moller (1961) gives a meancooling rate of 1.2"C day" for longwave radiation fromwater vapor. By comparison, the value obtained in thisFIGURE %-As in figure 6 but for 800 mb.paper is 1.1"C day". Goody (1964, p. 272) states thatcooling rates computed from different techniques mayvary by as

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Thomas P. Charlock, Fred G. Rose, and Karen M. Cattany-Cranes

) correlation between the poleward windand the OLR. The cloud effect generally predominatesover the oceans. Over land, however, the surface will rapidly heat orcool in response to the air advected by the wind. Thesurface is a very effective emitter of infrared radiation.The land surface can substantially add to the increasedatmospheric infrared emission which is produced bythe warm air advected by a positive poleward wind.The correlation of poleward wind and OLR by thisland effect would then be positive

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Arnout Feijt and André van Lammeren

derivation of cloudproperties. Ground-based measurements from a lidar ceilometer and an infrared radiometer were combined withmeasurements of the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Meteosat satellite insmunents. Twocase studies ate presented: a case with streets of fair weather cumuli and a case with a weak cold front involvingcumulus, slratus, and cirrus clouds. From the combination of ground-based and satellite observations, a much betterdescription of the cloud field geomela'y, cloud

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VOLUME 99, NUMBER 11NOVEMBER 1971UDC ~1.576:551.521.14:~1.M)7.382.2:53blESTIMATION OF THE EFFECT OF PARTIAL CLOUD COVERON THE RADIATION RECEIVED BY THE NIMBUS HRIR FRED M. VUKOVCHResearch Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, N.C.ABSTRACTA theoretical technique was employed to compute the magnitude of the effect of cloud interference on the Nim-bus High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR) data. A comparative study using HRIR and ground truth datasuggests that the derived results

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Zhengkun Qin, Xiaolei Zou, and Fuzhong Weng

) near the northern Gulf of Mexico in the presence of other satellite data. Specifically, imager data from GOES-11 and GOES-12 is added to the assimilation of the Advance Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), the hyperspectral AIRS, High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), GOES Sounder (GSN), the Advance Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) and the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) to assess the complimentary benefit of GOES imager data to these other satellite data for NWP. Since AMSU-B on

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Philip E. Ardanuy and H. Lee Kyle

--473. Thompson, S. L., and S. G. Warren, 1982: Parameterization of out going infrared radiation derived from detailed radiative calcu lations. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 2667-2680. Trenberth, K. E., 1984: Some effects of finite sample size and per sistance on meteorological statistics. Part II: Potential predict ability. J. Atmos. Sci., 112, 2364-2379. Warren, S. G., and S. L. Thompson, 1983: The climatological min imum in tropical outgoing infrared radiation: Contributions of humidity and clouds

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Josef Schröttle, Martin Weissmann, Leonhard Scheck, and Axel Hutt

this purpose: Water vapor infrared channels are sensitive to water and ice clouds, containing information on atmospheric humidity and temperature. The brightness temperature of clouds observed in these channels provides information on the cloud top height. Due to the absorption by water vapor these channels peak fairly high, so they are only sensitive to mid- and upper-level clouds. Infrared window channels can see through the atmosphere, but low clouds are often hard to distinguish from the

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Frank W. Very

in like manner;but the discovery of extreme infra-red rays having a wave.length (at the rock-salt maximum) of a t least 60 microns!and requiring special means for its absorption and measure.ment, has emphasized Mellonis observation that, for radia-tion from sources of low temperature and from such bodieaas rock-salt, lampblack behaves as a partially transparentbody. While the transformation of radiation into heat byblack bodies and the registration of thisheat by some ther.mometric device is more

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, Jr.), "Effects of Elevation andSlope Exposurc on Air and Soil Temperatures for the Typical Georgia Piedmont Farm," Research Bulletin 31, Universityof Georgia, College of Agricultural Experiment Stations, Athens, Mar. 1968, 26 pp.E. C. Flowers and H. Viebrock, "The Recent Decrease in`Solar Radiation at the South Pole," Polar Meteorology, Technical Sob NO. 87, WMO-NO. 211. TP 111, 1967, pp. 116-119.It. C. Gentry, "Nature and Scope of Hurricane Damage," American Society for Oceanography

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Julia M. Slingo, U. C. Mohanty, M. Tiedtke, and R. P. Pearce

80 rob. Further evidence of thedeepening of the total moist layer by shallow convection is given in Tiedtke et al. (1988). 3. REVISED INFRARED RADIATION SCHEME The radiation scheme used in the ECMWF modelincorporates not only the effects of gaseous absorptionand emission, but also scattering by air molecules,aerosols and cloud water droplets. The main problemis one of finding an economical way of treating theinteraction between the scattering processes, which canbe assumed to be "grey" (i

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