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John W. Weatherly and Mattson A. Rosenbaum

1. Introduction Increasing surface air temperatures associated with anthropogenic climate change are expected to have growing impacts on the operation and soldier training at U.S. Army installations and training ranges in the coming decades. Projections from global climate models (GCMs) include annual average surface air temperature increases between 3° and 6°C for the contiguous United States through year 2100 for multiple greenhouse-gas emission scenarios ( IPCC 2013 ). Regional precipitation

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Jake Badger, Helmut Frank, Andrea N. Hahmann, and Gregor Giebel

wind class is modified by regional-scale topography. In the KAMM–WAsP method, postprocessing of the results from all the simulations yields a wind resource map at the resolution of the model simulations. Further analysis, with consideration given to the mesoscale model description of topography, yields wind atlas maps for generalized surface conditions (flat terrain with uniform roughness). This generalized wind climate is a unique feature of the methodology. The generalized wind climate approach

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Adam Terando, William E. Easterling, Klaus Keller, and David R. Easterling

development, fertilization procedures, and land management) and other nonclimate determinants of crop growth such as pest and disease outbreaks (although many of these determinants are themselves tightly coupled to climate variability and change). But removing these effects is difficult to implement because of the potentially confounding effect between technology and climate as well as the difficulty in accounting for regional variations in exogenous factors ( Schlenker and Roberts 2009 ). An avenue to

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Michael S. Pritchard, Andrew B. G. Bush, and Shawn J. Marshall

-yr control simulation of modern climate. The regional distribution of El Niño temperature and precipitation anomalies in the AOGCM is largely in agreement with observations from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis ( Fig. 2 ; Kalnay et al. 1996 ) although the magnitude of the thermal response is underestimated, most likely because of diffusive effects associated with the relatively coarse atmospheric model resolution

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Annarita Mariotti

global water cycle in relation to global warming. Research presented here explores the regional manifestations of these long-term global water cycle changes in the sensitive Mediterranean system, exploiting recent progress in data availability. The focus is on the combined effects of precipitation and evaporation changes on the Mediterranean water cycle. A major question that this work addresses is whether the behavior observed during the last few decades is consistent with the “transition” phase

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Christopher L. Castro, Roger A. Pielke Sr., Jimmy O. Adegoke, Siegfried D. Schubert, and Phillip J. Pegion

; Lu and Shuttleworth 2002 ; Matsui et al. 2005 ; Adegoke et al. 2006 ). These effects have been evaluated in both observational and regional and global modeling frameworks in the aforementioned studies. Our future work with the RAMS model will use the present set of RCM simulations as a baseline to evaluate the influence of the land surface in different SST regimes. 6. Summary Summer dynamical downscaling simulations over the contiguous United States and Mexico with RAMS from Part I were

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D. J. Rasmussen, Malte Meinshausen, and Robert E. Kopp

, 2009 : Nonlinear temperature effects indicate severe damages to U.S. crop yields under climate change . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 106 , 15 594 – 15 598 , doi: 10.1073/pnas.0906865106 . Stainforth , D. A. , and Coauthors , 2005 : Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases . Nature , 433 , 403 – 406 , doi: 10.1038/nature03301 . Stoner , A. M. K. , K. Hayhoe , X. Yang , and D. J. Wuebbles , 2013 : An asynchronous regional

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Anning Huang, Yang Zhou, Yaocun Zhang, Danqing Huang, Yong Zhao, and Haomin Wu

1. Introduction Global warming characterized by the global mean surface air temperature increase of 0.74° ± 0.18°C in the last 100 years ( Solomon et al. 2007 ) has caused tremendous impacts on global and regional climate changes ( Dai et al. 1998 ; Chen et al. 2010 ). In a warming world where the atmosphere can hold more water vapor, the hydrological cycle could become more active ( Folland et al. 2001a ). Recent and potential future increases in global temperatures are likely to affect the

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

). Subsequently, the effects of the ITF on the large-scale ocean circulation were investigated with ocean-only models, by contrasting ITF-on and -off experiments (e.g., Hughes et al. 1992 ; Hirst and Godfrey 1993 ; Godfrey 1996 ; Murtugudde et al. 1998 ; Lee et al. 2002 ; Song and Gordon 2004 ). Although these studies could not fully address how the air–sea coupled climate system may be affected by ITF, they quantified the direct effects of the ITF within the oceans, and their results form a basis for

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Shih-Nan Chen and Lawrence P. Sanford

diagram to classify axial wind effects on estuarine vertical stratification is proposed. 2. Numerical model We use the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS; Haidvogel et al. 2000 ) to simulate an idealized estuarine channel. ROMS is a hydrostatic, primitive equation model using a curvilinear grid in the horizontal and a stretched, terrain-following coordinate in the vertical. It has been widely used by the coastal ocean modeling community and is capable of simulating many estuarine flows with high skill

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