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D. M. Le Vine, M. Kao, R. W. Garvine, and T. Sanders

1. Introduction The possibility of measuring sea surface salinity from a satellite in space has been discussed seriously in the past ( Swift and McIntosh 1983 ). Recent developments have fostered a resurgence of interest in using remote measurements from space to obtain a global map of the salinity field of the world ocean. Among these developments is the availability of satellite-generated maps of sea surface temperature and surface winds that provide the framework into which global maps of

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Hailong Liu, Semyon A. Grodsky, and James A. Carton

1. Introduction The ocean mixed layer is a near-surface layer of fluid with quasi-uniform properties such as temperature, salinity, and density. The width of this mixed layer and its time rate of change both strongly influence the ocean’s role in air–sea interaction. However, the width of the near-surface layer of quasi-uniform temperature (MLT) may differ from the width of the near-surface layer of quasi-uniform density (MLD). MLT may be thicker than MLD when positive salinity stratification

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Pankajakshan Thadathil, C. C. Bajish, Swadhin Behera, and V. V. Gopalakrishna

1. Introduction Salinity plays a major role in ocean circulation to affect regional and global climates. Therefore, quality observations of salinity are important for understanding ocean circulation and climate variability. Argo is the first global ocean network of profiling floats providing real-time observation of surface and subsurface salinity, along with temperature ( Davis et al. 2001 ; Larson et al. 2008 ). The Argo program and its data management system began with regional arrays in

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Tao Wang and W. Rockwell Geyer

). Therefore, the mixing of salinity is an essential ingredient of exchange flow. Before examining in detail the relationship between exchange flow and mixing of salinity, it is important to establish a clear, quantitative definition of “mixing of salinity.” In the ocean turbulence community, the mixing of a tracer is defined by the tracer variance dissipation rate ( Osborn and Cox 1972 ; Stern 1968 ; Nash and Moum 1999 ). This quantity was used by Burchard et al. (2009) to quantify the mixing of

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Annie P. S. Wong, Gregory C. Johnson, and W. Brechner Owens

1. Introduction Autonomous CTD profiling floats are instruments that move freely with the ocean current at fixed parking depths and cycle from a profiling depth to the sea surface at regular time intervals. While rising to the surface, these autonomous floats take profiles of conductivity ( C ) and temperature ( T ) versus pressure through the water column. From these variables, depth ( D ), salinity, density, and other derived quantities can be calculated. The data are sent to various data

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Willem P. Sijp and Matthew H. England

-averaged upper-ocean Atlantic salinity (see Table 1 for an explanation of the terms). The highest value H * where the OFF state exists was calculated from ∂ F circ /∂ S = 0. The closed Atlantic salt budget allowed the formulation of a simple evolution equation for , the average upper Atlantic salinity as a function of time t . This equation also describes the evolution of the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) reverse cell strength M via Eq. (2) of Part I (see also Table 2 ). The simplicity of

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Yang Yu, Shu-Hua Chen, Yu-Heng Tseng, Xinyu Guo, Jie Shi, Guangliang Liu, Chao Zhang, Yi Xu, and Huiwang Gao

et al. 2005 ) and thus reduces SST ( Price et al. 1986 ). Through the nonlinear oceanic adjustment process, the diurnal SST relates to the seasonal and intraseasonal SST variabilities, which are called the “diurnal effects” in some studies. Recently, the impacts of diurnal forcing on sea surface salinity (SSS) have drawn considerable attention. The diurnal cycle of salinity may influence upper ocean stratification ( Lukas and Lindstrom 1991 ; Montégut et al. 2007 ), which in turn affects SST and

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Trevor J. McDougall and David R. Jackett

1. Introduction Oceanographers traditionally study water masses on the salinity–potential temperature diagram because source waters can often be identified on this diagram and turbulent mixing processes are assumed to occur along straight lines (since both salinity and potential temperature are usually assumed to be conservative). For example, Iselin (1939) noted the similarity between the S – θ structure of the surface water in late winter to the S – θ curve obtained from vertical casts

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Yeon S. Chang, Tamay M. Özgökmen, Hartmut Peters, and Xiaobiao Xu

1. Introduction Most deep and intermediate water masses of the World Ocean originate via overflows from marginal and polar seas. While flowing down the continental slope, these water masses entrain ambient waters such that the turbulent mixing strongly modifies the temperature ( T ), salinity ( S ), and equilibrium depth of the so-called product water masses. As the mixing takes place over small space and time scales, it needs to be parameterized in ocean general circulation models (OGCMs

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Christophe Maes, David Behringer, Richard W. Reynolds, and Ming Ji

observations depending on whether T/P sea level data are assimilated ( Ji et al. 2000 ). The origin of these differences is believed to be related to the uncorrected salinity field in the ocean model. The use of sea level in an assimilation system that corrects only the temperature field neglects the fact that sea level is determined by salinity as well as temperature. In the western tropical Pacific Ocean, the influence of salinity on sea level variability is strong enough to be detectable by an altimeter

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