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Salil Mahajan, Rong Zhang, and Thomas L. Delworth

1. Introduction Observations show an accelerating decline of the Arctic sea ice cover (e.g., Comiso et al. 2008 ; Kwok et al. 2009 ) and sea ice thickness ( Rothrock et al. 2008 ; Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ) in recent decades. While trends in the long-term atmospheric circulation over the Arctic are not consistent with the declining trends in the Arctic sea ice exhibited in the satellite record since 1979 (e.g., Deser and Teng 2008 ), the declining trends in the Arctic sea ice have been found

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Liping Ma, Tim Woollings, Richard G. Williams, Doug Smith, and Nick Dunstone

: 40 different ensemble members are initialized with the same ocean and sea ice state from the assimilation run and only differ in the atmosphere by random seeds supplied to a stochastic physics scheme. An ensemble is created by providing different seeds to a stochastic physics scheme ( Bowler et al. 2009 ). This model dataset then comprises 40 ensembles over each month of the 35 years (hereafter named ensemble data). The model analysis is also compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis monthly and daily

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Yuan Wang, Jonathan H. Jiang, Hui Su, Yong-Sang Choi, Lei Huang, Jianping Guo, and Yuk L. Yung

1. Introduction As a strong climate feedback, the Arctic sea ice melt under global warming ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ) plays a pivotal role in amplifying temperature increases in the high latitudes ( Holland and Bitz 2003 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ) and therefore drastically alters the global energy balance, general circulation, and even midlatitude weather systems ( Cohen et al. 2014 ). The long-term variations of the coupled atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean in the Arctic

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James A. Screen, Ian Simmonds, Clara Deser, and Robert Tomas

1. Introduction The Arctic climate is changing rapidly, with potentially far-reaching repercussions ( Symon et al. 2005 ; Solomon et al. 2007 ). Arctic sea ice is melting at an increasing rate ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Stroeve et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Stroeve et al. 2011 ; Comiso 2012 ). In September 2007, the Arctic sea ice reached its lowest areal extent in the satellite record, around 40% below the long-term mean ( Comiso et al. 2008 ). The last five years (2007–11) have

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Mitchell Bushuk, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

1. Introduction Sea ice is a complex and critical component of the climate system. Existing at the interface between the atmosphere and the ocean, it modulates the atmosphere’s ability to force the ocean through wind, and the ocean’s ability to force the atmosphere through sea surface temperatures (SSTs). It also regulates turbulent heat transfer between the two media. Sea ice is a truly multiscale phenomenon: its dynamics are heavily influenced by large-scale circulation of the ocean and

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Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Kyle C. Armour, Cecilia M. Bitz, and Eric DeWeaver

1. Introduction Sea ice has long been recognized as a key player in global climate (e.g., Budyko 1969 ). Through its high albedo, it reflects large amounts of incident solar radiation to outer space that would otherwise be absorbed, thus cooling the surface. It regulates the fluxes of turbulent heat between the ocean and atmosphere, acting as an insulating cap between both mediums ( Maykut 1982 ). It also plays an important role in the makeup of ocean currents by modulating the production of

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Svenya Chripko, Rym Msadek, Emilia Sanchez-Gomez, Laurent Terray, Laurent Bessières, and Marie-Pierre Moine

1. Introduction Over the last three decades, surface temperatures in the Arctic region have been increasing twice as fast as global mean temperature ( Bindoff et al. 2013 ). This phenomenon is called Arctic amplification and is strongest in winter ( Bintanja and van der Linden 2013 ). One major consequence of this effect is the decline of Arctic sea ice that has been observed since the beginning of satellite measurements ( Serreze et al. 2009 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010a ). Arctic sea ice

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Svetlana A. Sorokina, Camille Li, Justin J. Wettstein, and Nils Gunnar Kvamstø

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice has decreased in all seasons during recent decades. The largest declines in areal extent have occurred during summer and early autumn (up to 10% decade −1 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ), but the thicker multiyear ice cover is shrinking rapidly in winter as well ( Comiso 2012 ). Wintertime Arctic sea ice area declines are concentrated in the Barents Sea ( Serreze et al. 2009 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010a ; Parkinson and Cavalieri 2012 ). The diminishing Arctic sea ice

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Thomas W. Collow, Wanqiu Wang, and Arun Kumar

1. Introduction Declining Arctic sea ice and its impacts on midlatitude weather and climate has been a major topic of scientific debate in recent years. Sea ice loss leads to additional Arctic warming through the ice–ocean albedo feedback ( Kumar et al. 2010 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). Because open water has a lower albedo than sea ice, a region with open water absorbs more solar radiation than ice, thus increasing the temperature further than if the same region were covered by ice. LaJoie

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Yunfeng Cao, Shunlin Liang, Xiaona Chen, and Tao He

1. Introduction Sea surface albedo in the Arctic Ocean has declined considerably over the past decades ( Comiso and Hall 2014 ; Riihelä et al. 2013a ) because of retreating sea ice coverage ( Comiso et al. 2008 ; Kerr 2009 ; Parkinson and Cavalieri 2012 ), earlier melt onset ( Markus et al. 2009 ; Stroeve et al. 2014 ), and decreasing ice thickness ( Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ; Maslanik et al. 2007 ), which have forced the Arctic Ocean to absorb increasing amounts of solar radiation

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