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Irina Rudeva and Ian Simmonds

to a lesser extent in the high latitudes. Large parts of the tropics are dominated by easterlies, meaning that quasi-stationary Rossby waves cannot propagate in that region; however, over small domains over the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans the averaged wind is westerly, making the interaction between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres possible. A summary of the meridional structure of K s is presented in Fig. 2c ; the black curve shows the longitudinal means of the values (when

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Virginie Capelle, Alain Chédin, Eric Péquignot, Peter Schlüssel, Stuart M. Newman, and Noelle A. Scott

these simulations is −0.1 ± 1.3 K. This error is consistent with recent reported errors ( Bosilovich 2006 ; Zhang et al. 2007 ; Li et al. 2011 ). Fig . 4. Mean and standard deviation of the difference between the retrieved emissivity spectrum and the true outcome for a set of 5000 simulations (nadir viewing, surface pressure at 1013 hPa). The standard deviation provides an estimate of the IASI-MSM-expected standard deviation. 4. Application of the IASI-MSM data to observations over the tropics

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Edward J. Zipser

AUGUST 1994 Z 1 P S E R 1837Deep Cumulonimbus Cloud Systems in the Tropics with and without Lightning EDWARD J. ZIPSERDepartment of Meteorology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas(Manuscript received 2 June 1993, in final form 14 October 1993)ABSTRACT The thunderstorm frequency over the oceans during the Global Atmospheric Research Program AtlanticTropical

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Yuei-An Liou, Yu-Tun Teng, Teresa Van Hove, and James C. Liljegren

similarities are observable. First, the correlation between T m and T s is weaker in summer and stronger in winter. Second, 11.34 K of annual range of T m and 283.19 K of annual mean T m in the current study properly fall onto the corresponding region of the contour plot in Fig. 1 of RR1997. It is found that T m daily variability is smallest in the Tropics in RR1997. It is of no surprise that our regression differs from that presented of Bevis et al. (1992) . Furthermore, we found that the

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Herbert Riehl

14012 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLmaE10$Venezuelan Rain Systems and the General Circulation of the Summer Tropics I: Rain Systems Na~ion~ Co'n~e~ for Atmospheric R~s~m'ch,~ Bouldg, Co~. g03~ (M~uus~ipt receiv~ 3~ M~y 1977, ~ fiu~ fore 14 J~y ~977) ABSTRACT It was a ~n objective of ~e Ven~u~a ~efiments in 1~9 and 1972 to e~ne ~e Hnks between

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Chidong Zhang

1898JOURNAL OF CLIMATEVOLUMELarge-Scale Variability of Atmospheric Deep Convection in Relation to Sea Surface Temperature in the Tropics* CHIDONG ZHANG* *Department of the Atmospheric Sciences and Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (Manuscript received I August 1991, in final form 26 March 1993)ABSTRACT Empirical relationships between tropical sea surface temperature (SST) and

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Akira Kasahara, Ramesh C. Balgovind, and B. Katz

final form 14 October 1987)ABSTRACT A scheme is proposed to incorporate s~tellite radiometric imagery data into the specification of initial conditionsfor the National Meteorological Center (NMC) operational global prediction model in order to improve theanalysis of the divergent wind field in the tropics. The basic assumptions are that outgoing longwave radiation(OLR) data can provide l) the division between convective (upward motion) and clear sky (downward motion)areas, and 2) the height of

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James R. Holton and Donald E. Colton

1124 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~.uzaE29A Diagnostic Study of the Vorticity Balance at 200 mbin the Tropics During the Northern Summer~ JA~s R. Hor~ro~ A_~n DONA~D g. C0r~TONDept. of Atrnospheri4 Sciences, Uni, erslty of Washington, Seattl~ 9gi95 (Manuscript received 3 April 1972, in revised form 15 May 1972)ABSTRACT The linearized vorticity equation is used to diagnose the seasonal mean vorticity

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Tsing-Chang Chen

$96 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VocuM-108On the Energy Exchange between the Divergent and Rotational Components of AtmosphericFlow over the Tropics and Subtropics at 200 mb during Two Northern Summers TSING-CHANG CHENDepartment of Earth Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011(Manuscript received 18 May 1979, in final form 23 November 1979)ABSTRACT The kinetic energy of divergent and

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Chris Kidd, Erin Dawkins, and George Huffman

reasonably accurate for the cooler midlatitudes in which large-scale synoptic patterns are common ( Kidd et al. 2012 ), modeling skill decreases over the tropics where convective systems dominate. Here processes governing precipitation are typically at finer spatial and temporal scales ( Huffman et al. 2010 ), and the ability of the models to capture these finer spatiotemporal precipitation characteristics remains one of the critical unresolved issues in climatology ( Michaelides et al. 2009 ). As a

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