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Roger Lukas and Eric Firing

propagating windsystems. Ichiye (1959) investigated the response of asingle normal mode of an equatorial ocean to westward moving winds. He found that resonance of freeRossby waves with westward moving periodic windstress could occur and that this response is quitedifferent from that due to a transient wind system.(Weisberg and Tang, 1983, have since elaborated onthe baroclinic response to westward propagating transient wind forcing.) Wunsch (1977) studied the equatorial ocean response to westward

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L. D. Danny Harvey

atmosphereundergoes most of its temperature response with fixedseasonal ocean temperatures within the first few weeksof its one-year integration, with almost no further response thereafter. Consequently, the mean perturbations in the library fluxes or temperature differences,which are used to force the ocean during the next fiveyears, correspond to an effective atmosphere responsetime of only a few weeks rather than of one year. Thus,we are posed with the dilemma that we are constrainedto integrate the atmosphere

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Yoshinobu Wakata

. The horizontal boundary condition is assumed to be periodic, which means that the west-side (north side) boundary variables are linked to eastward-side (south side) ones. The horizontal domain is extended periodically. The eastward velocity , which is vertically constant and in a geostrophic balance, is set as the initial condition. The northward body forcing representing the sea surface height gradient is set in the momentum equation to balance with the Coriolis force related to the initial

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Yonggang Liu and Robert H. Weisberg

readily interpretable because of a number of factors ( Vignudelli et al. 2005 ). Complimenting conventional altimetric sensors is a new GPS coastal altimetry technique introduced by Treuhaft et al. (2001) . Regardless of technique the calibration of coastal altimetry requires independent SSH estimations within shallow water environments. Early observational studies of the WFS sea level responses to wind forcing focused on coastal sea level ( Marmorino 1982 ; Cragg et al. 1983 ). An across-shelf sea

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Shenfu Dong, Janet Sprintall, and Sarah T. Gille

strongly influenced by water vapor and cloud cover, and about 45% of the data during their study period were missing. Moore et al. (1999a) suggested that both the Antarctic PF path and its properties show seasonal variability, although they also mentioned that the cloud cover itself has seasonal variability. Cloud cover leaves a number of open questions in the Moore et al. (1999a) analysis, suggesting that the topic merits revisiting using a dataset that is unimpeded by clouds. The recently

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Lars-Arne Rahm and Urban Svensson

fluctuations are described by a stochastic process. Arnold (1974) has shown that Langevin's equationyields vertical velocities with the requested properties.Hence, it seems justifiable to use this equation in describing the particle velocities in a turbulent flow. Itdescribes the motion of a fluid particle subject to botha random acceleration and a retarding force. (Note thatLangevin's equation has its roots in two "worlds," themacroscopic "world" represented by the drag force,and the microscopic "world

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Henry W. Brandli, Donald L. Reinke, and Lloyd E. Irvin

are derived from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) infrared (8-13Lt., USAF.Capt., USAF.t~m) radiance imagery obtained by DMSP Site 8 atthe Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Thederived sea surface temperatures are ~90C colder thanthe sea surface temperatures measured by the surveyship. The data sample consists of 31 pieces of information taken in the vicinity of 27~0N, 80-W off the eastcoast of Florida. The results presented here supplementthe findings of the studies

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P. Flament, J. Firing, M. Sawyer, and C. Trefois

. Note that the afternoon images weretaken at -- 1430 LST, approximately the mean timeof the peak of the diurnal cycle (cf. Price et al. 1987,their Fig. 8). The final calibrated cloud-masked thermal infraredimages are shown in Fig. 8; the corrections applied arediscussed in the Appendix. A bank of stratus cloudsoriginated from the southwest, progressively filling theimages, but there were no scattered convective clouds.Figure 9 shows temperature variations along a sectionthrough the images. For

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Gary A. Wick, J. Carter Ohlmann, Christopher W. Fairall, and Andrew T. Jessup

overpredict the daytime warming of the skin layer relative to measurements near 10 cm in depth. Recent independent work, however, resulted in a significantly improved solar transmission parameterization that depends on upper-ocean chlorophyll concentration, cloud amount, and solar zenith angle ( Ohlmann and Siegel 2000 ). The new model provides an improvement in skill of order 10 W m −2 over existing parameterizations. Initial application of this new parameterization to a bulk flux model resulted in a 15

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D. W. Wang, H. W. Wijesekera, E. Jarosz, W. J. Teague, and W. S. Pegau

-surface mixed layer ( Thorpe 1992 ). Thorpe (1984 , 1986) studied the vertical turbulent transport in the ocean boundary layer under weak to moderate winds by analyzing the eddy diffusion coefficient derived from bubble cloud acoustic backscatter profiles. The objective of this study is to understand and characterize wave-affected turbulence dynamics in the mixed layer under high winds based on ocean and meteorological measurements collected off the coast of the northern Gulf of Alaska near Kayak Island

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