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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

about the multiscale effects of land–atmosphere interaction remain unclear, for example, what are the impacts of the high-frequency variability of soil moisture on the low-frequency variations of precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric circulations? The above review concludes that soil moisture affects precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric circulation relatively simultaneously via its effect associated with surface energy balance, and less concurrently through its memory effect. These

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R. Bassett, P. J. Young, G. S. Blair, F. Samreen, and W. Simm

to the parent domain. c. Ensemble configuration Internal model variability may cause differences in results due to nonlinear processes within regional climate models ( Laux et al. 2017 ; Lucas-Picher et al. 2008 ; Bassett et al. 2020 ). Therefore, we need to be confident that any warming in our results due to urbanization exceeds effects caused by internal model variability (IMV). Based on previous research to the number of ensemble members to capture the majority of IMV ( Bassett et al. 2020

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Changhyoun Park, Christoph Gerbig, Sally Newman, Ravan Ahmadov, Sha Feng, Kevin R. Gurney, Gregory R Carmichael, Soon-Young Park, Hwa-Woon Lee, Mike Goulden, Jochen Stutz, Jeff Peischl, and Tom Ryerson

measurements. Several studies have been conducted to diagnose the mismatch between global-scale models and flux measurements ( Gerbig et al. 2003 ; Pérez-Landa et al. 2007 ; van der Molen and Dolman 2007 ). To fill the scale gap between the global inverse modeling and the microscale measurements, we require modeling of regional-scale CO 2 transport with finer spatiotemporal resolution. Accurate simulations of mesoscale transport are important to estimate the CO 2 transport, variability, and budget

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G. P. Weedon, S. Gomes, P. Viterbo, W. J. Shuttleworth, E. Blyth, H. Österle, J. C. Adam, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, and M. Best

1. Introduction As the earth’s whole climate system slowly changes there are likely to be greater and faster regional changes. Studies of the impacts of these changes on essential services such as fresh water supply are being made by many researchers (e.g., Harding et al. 2011 ) with the change in evaporation being a key aspect. Observations of large-scale evaporation over the last half century (the most studied period) are, however, not available. Consequently, models of evaporation are

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Arjun Jagannathan, Kaushik Srinivasan, James C. McWilliams, M. Jeroen Molemaker, and Andrew L. Stewart

flow past an elongated ridge using solutions from idealized, fully three-dimensional ROMS simulations. ROMS is the Regional Oceanic Modeling System. The model setup is detailed in section 2 . Figure 1 provides a glimpse of the essential dynamics. Barotropically forced flow past an elongated ridge leads to vorticity generation along the slopes, culminating in the shedding of vertically coherent vortices into the wake. In section 3 , we derive an integral formulation of the vertical vorticity

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Kathleen D. Holman

suggestions. The author would also like to thank Keil Neff. REFERENCES Adamowski , K. , 2000 : Regional analysis of annual maximum and partial duration flood data by nonparametric and L-moment methods . J. Hydrol. , 229 , 219 – 231 , https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00156-6 . 10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00156-6 Alila , Y. , and A. Mtiraoui , 2002 : Implications of heterogeneous flood-frequency distributions on traditional stream-discharge prediction techniques . Hydrol. Processes , 16 , 1065

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

importance of extreme precipitation, the challenge of predicting it accurately, and the regional variations of what defines an “extreme” precipitation event, this paper recommends that unique regional precipitation thresholds be used in the future to assess extreme precipitation QPF performance. These regionally relevant QPF performance statistics can then be combined to evaluate the forecast performance of extreme precipitation events nationally. 2. Data and methodology overview Data from the November

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Thang M. Luong, Christopher L. Castro, Hsin-I Chang, Timothy Lahmers, David K. Adams, and Carlos A. Ochoa-Moya

; Chang et al. 2015 ). We must necessarily depend on global and regional atmospheric climate models (GCMs or RCMs) to generate future projections and retrospective simulations of the NAM for impacts assessment, but these tools have caveats. GCMs, used for purposes of climate projection or seasonal forecasting, and global atmospheric reanalyses are generally challenged to represent the NAM as a salient climatological feature, in terms of its seasonal maximum in precipitation that occurs during July and

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Olga Henneberg, Jan Henneberger, and Ulrike Lohmann

microphysics to synoptic forcing contributes to the occurrence of MPCs. In the present study we simulate MPCs in realistic orographic complex terrain in order to account for the complex Alpine orography and we modify the orography to highlight the importance of the distinct orography for the steady occurrence of MPCs at JFJ. 2. Model description and validation a. COSMO simulations Simulations are conducted with the regional weather and climate model Consortium of Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO) using a

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Carlo Montes, José A. Rutllant, Anita Aguirre, Luisa Bascuñán-Godoy, and Cristóbal Juliá

( Inzunza 2009 ). Material damages and effects on human welfare resulting from this type of windstorm have also been reported for North America ( Brinkmann 1974 ; Cao and Fovell 2015 ) and Europe ( Reid and Turner 1997 ). At the other (east) side of the Andes, Norte (2015) reports strong negative local impacts by the zonda wind as a result of the wind strength and warm/dry air conditions. Among the latter, mechanical and physiological damage to fruit trees during flowering ( Caretta et al. 2004

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