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James M. Gilbert, Reed M. Maxwell, and David J. Gochis

suggests that anthropogenic impacts to groundwater systems may extend beyond terrestrial hydrology. Extensive groundwater extraction to support agriculture, industry, and domestic use has produced regions of considerable aquifer depletion around the world ( Döll et al. 2012 ; Scanlon et al. 2012 ; Wada et al. 2010 ). In particular, groundwater extraction to support irrigation has been linked with significant declines in important regional aquifer systems ( Wada et al. 2012 ), with California

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Kurt C. Solander, John T. Reager, Brian F. Thomas, Cédric H. David, and James S. Famiglietti

anticipated to exacerbate the already declining trend in annual snowpack and further shift the timing of peak runoff toward earlier in the season ( Mote 2006 ). Rising temperatures coupled with these hydrologic effects are expected to decrease available reservoir storage, promote additional deviations away from the natural flow regime in rivers, and enhance reservoir storage losses due to evaporation ( Vanrheenen et al. 2004 ; Mote 2006 ; Cayan et al. 2008 ; Barnett et al. 2008 ). These changes in the

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Atsuhiro Takahashi, Tomo’omi Kumagai, Hironari Kanamori, Hatsuki Fujinami, Tetsuya Hiyama, and Masayuki Hara

). Fig . 9. As in Fig. 3 , but for P mon . Finally, the cause and effects of the precipitation changes induced by the LULCC are summarized in Fig. 10 , where all of the variables (i.e., evapotranspiration E , precipitation P , CAPE, horizontal water vapor flux Q div , horizontal wind velocity U , albedo, and SHF) were integrated over Borneo in the studied month. Parameters Q div and U were calculated as radius components of the polar coordinates whose center is located at the center of

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Cristián Chadwick, Jorge Gironás, Sebastián Vicuña, and Francisco Meza

-017-3847-y . 10.1007/s00382-017-3847-y Boisier , J. P. , and P. Aceituno , 2006 : Changes in surface and upper-air temperature along the arid coast of northern Chile. Preprints, Eighth Int. Conf. on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography , Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 227–228. Boisier , J. P. , R. Rondanelli , R. D. Garreaud , and F. Muñoz , 2016 : Anthropogenic and natural contributions to the southeast Pacific precipitation decline and recent megadrought in central

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Meixia Lv, Zhuguo Ma, Liang Chen, and Shaoming Peng

ET was the largest among the water budget terms, both across the globe (45.4%) and in the Yellow River basin (51%). Therefore, the uncertainty in ET needs to be further reduced. Notably, irrigation effects have not been well represented in the currently available ET estimates ( Gao et al. 2007 ; Gowda et al. 2007 ; Liu et al. 2013 ; Lei et al. 2015 ; Castle et al. 2016 ; Lv et al. 2017 ). For instance, numerical model estimates of ET have tended to underestimate ET in managed river basins

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Qiuhong Tang, Taikan Oki, Shinjiro Kanae, and Heping Hu

by human activities, respectively. Precipitation heterogeneity is represented by a simple spatial exponential distribution. An irrigation scheme based on simulated soil moisture and available water was developed to represent subgrid variability related to irrigation. The study objective was to analyze the effects of anthropogenic heterogeneity on the water and energy balances of a large-scale basin in a semiarid river basin by comparing the effects of natural heterogeneity and anthropogenie

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Xuejian Cao, Youcun Qi, and Guangheng Ni

). Currently, enormous studies focus on the blockage effects of buildings, where the existence of buildings alters the initial overland flow paths determined by gravity’s direction. To estimate the blockage effects of buildings, various methods in the past are adopted, such as increasing the roughness in localized areas to represent buildings ( Connell et al. 2001 ; Vojinovic et al. 2011 ), blocking 2D elements or removing them from the simulation grid ( Chen et al. 2008 ; Russo et al. 2012 ; Zoran 2009

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Bin Yong, Liliang Ren, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Xi Chen, Jinwei Dong, Weiguang Wang, Yan Shen, and Jill Hardy

changes in precipitation, temperature, and anthropogenic water abstractions further impact streamflow in the Northern Hemisphere ( Lindstrom and Bergstrom 2004 ; Bates et al. 2008 ). During the last 50 years, several of the most important river basins of northern China, such as the Yellow River, Huai River, Hai River, and Liao River, have been experiencing water shortages ( Ren et al. 2002 ; Liu and Zheng 2004 ; Yong et al. 2010 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ). This problem has become more severe in the

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Dashan Wang, Xianwei Wang, Lin Liu, Dagang Wang, and Zhenzhong Zeng

backgrounds. Besides, mechanisms of the urban effects in the spatial clustering of precipitation extremes have not been fully understood. Further observation and modeling studies on more events under different synoptic conditions and impact factors are needed to reveal the role of urban areas on the spatial clustering of precipitation and the related mechanisms, such as accurate divisions of precipitation types, land cover and land use change, anthropogenic heat, anthropogenic aerosol emission, and so on

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Yanan Duan and Sanjiv Kumar

. For groundwater experiments (described later) only variables with star sign (*) are perturbed. We compared the effects of the initial hydrologic conditions on streamflow forecast to the impacts of the skill in seasonal climate forecast using the ensemble forecast experiment with synchronous and randomized reanalysis climate forcing. The random climate forcing is the climate forcing from the same season but the remaining 14 years that do not correspond to the year for which streamflow forecasts are

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