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Kerry Emanuel

boundary of the patch with gravity waves that are well outside the patch, and it is thus filtered from quasi-balanced systems. The idea that less-balanced modes might be unstable even if Charney–Stern–Fjørtoft–like sufficient conditions for stability are satisfied is strongly supported by the work of Zhong et al. (2009) , who showed using linear shallow water theory that while Rossby-type and inertia–gravity–type oscillations are clearly separable in the eye and outer regions of tropical cyclone

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David A. Randall, Anthony D. Del Genio, Leo J. Donner, William D. Collins, and Stephen A. Klein

(including small clouds) are included in the CRM, which explicitly simulates the larger clouds and some mesoscale processes. The model successfully simulated some aspects of organized tropical convection, which many other models had failed to capture. In particular, the model produced a signal resembling the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ), which is an eastward-propagating tropical disturbance characterized by a large zonal extent and a period of about 40–50 days. The

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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

period is 5.7–6.1 mm day −1 in Lin and Johnson (1996) and 10.5–11.8 mm day −1 in Frank et al. (1996) . Therefore, although the analyzed data can be used to study the qualitative temporal variation of large-scale atmospheric phenomena, such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), their use to simulate the observed cloud fields for direct comparison with transient measurements of clouds can have large errors from the forcing data. SCM forcing data have been calculated for other shorter field

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

ways to measure the ocean along with the phenomena they have described: ships in section 2 ; moorings, Argo floats, and underwater gliders in sections 3 and 4 ; and moored velocity and air–sea flux measurements in sections 5 and 6 . Other sections address groups assembled to address the special ocean–atmosphere issues of specific regions. For example, section 7 discusses El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) array, while section 8

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Greg M. McFarquhar, Darrel Baumgardner, Aaron Bansemer, Steven J. Abel, Jonathan Crosier, Jeff French, Phil Rosenberg, Alexei Korolev, Alfons Schwarzoenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Junshik Um, Wei Wu, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Cynthia Twohy, Andrew Detwiler, Paul Field, Andrea Neumann, Richard Cotton, Duncan Axisa, and Jiayin Dong

nontrivial. Two fundamental problems exist. First, as predicted by Mie–Lorenz theory, the amount of light scattered by a particle is not a monotonic function of diameter. The peaks and troughs in the relationship are often referred to as Mie–Lorenz oscillations and their amplitude is particularly significant for droplets smaller than ~15 μ m [chapter 9 ( Baumgardner et al. 2017 ) discusses the sources of this uncertainty]. The second problem is that the properties of the instruments are often not well

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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

a flat bottom that produced transports far in excess of observations for any reasonable value of bottom drag coefficients. Surprisingly both theories ignored Munk and Palmén’s (1951) work, which had identified topographic form drag (the pressure forces associated with obstacles) from ocean ridges and seamounts as a key mechanism to slow down the ACC and connect it to currents to the north. Development of a theory of the Southern Ocean circulation is taken up below. The ice-covered Arctic Sea 9

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D. Baumgardner, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, R. Cotton, J. Crosier, P. Field, C. Gurganus, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, P. Lawson, G. McFarquhar, Z. Ulanowski, and J. Um

spheres are largest, >±20%, below 10 μ m, decreasing to <10% between 10 and 30 μ m, and then increasing again at larger sizes. Not only do these oscillations lead to size distributions with unnatural multimodal shapes, but the errors are propagated into the derived median volume diameter (MVD), LWC, and other bulk microphysical properties. Corrective steps that can decrease this uncertainty are discussed in McFarquhar et al. (2017 , chapter 11). Fig . 9-2. (a) Mie-scattering cross section of water

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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

in the tropical warm pool and in the Arctic to span, as it were, the extremes of global climate. The selection of the warm pool locale, which led to the establishment of the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, occurred because of the recognized importance of the TWP in tropical and extratropical climate variability, about which relatively little was known at the time. The TWP area is typified by a strong east-to-west gradient in various climate characteristics, including sea surface temperature

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

atmospheric circulation. It is believed these circulation responses could cause a positive phase of the Arctic oscillation and winter warming in high northern latitudes ( Ramaswamy et al. 2006a ; Shindell et al. 2003 , 2004 ; Stenchikov et al. 2002 , 2004 , 2006 ; Perlwitz and Graf 2001 ; Toohey et al. 2014 ), prolong or even initiate El Niño ( Adams et al. 2003 ; Pausata et al. 2015 ; Predybaylo et al. 2017 ; McGregor and Timmermann 2011 ; Ohba et al. 2013 ), or damp monsoon circulations

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

forecasting the distribution of environments on that time scale, large-scale patterns that support favorable environments have been the primary emphasis. Most of the work ( Allen et al. 2015 ; Cook et al. 2017 ) has focused on El Niño–Southern Oscillation and shows promise for future development. For shorter time scales out to a few weeks, recent emphasis has been on the state of the Madden–Julian oscillation, or a related quantity, the global relative angular momentum. Barrett and Gensini (2013

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