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Kendal McGuffie and Ann Henderson-Sellers

of the early Arctic voyages ( McConnell 2005 ). b. Quantifying the Australian climate The time of the British establishment of its penal colony in New South Wales (Australia) coincided with a period of intense effort and rapid scientific advances in atmospheric physics. Not only were thermometers and temperature scales being invented but pressure measurement was under intense scrutiny not so much for its own sake as for the potential it offered to measure the heights of mountains and the depths

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Mary McRae, Ross A. Lee, Scott Steinschneider, and Frank Galgano

enables the assessment of climate change vulnerabilities of both fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, for selected geographic sites, time periods, emissions scenarios, and performance impacts for decision-making needs to be developed. Previous work has analyzed the impacts of climate variability on seasonally averaged DA as a function of El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation ( Goodman and Small Griswold 2018 ). However, the impacts of climate change on multiple variables such as air

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Vladimir Janković and David M. Schultz

to a slowing down of the jet stream caused by the likely human-driven melting of the Arctic ( Rutgers Today 2014 ). During this period, scientists began developing tools and approaches for studying the probability that certain weather events were enhanced or became more frequent because of anthropogenic climate change. Comparisons between model climates in a preanthropogenic world and a postanthropogenic world became more commonplace. Among indications that attribution has secured a comfortable

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Scott Bremer, Anne Blanchard, Nabir Mamnun, Mathew Stiller-Reeve, Md. Mahfujul Haque, and Endre Tvinnereim

. , 27 , 629 – 649 , doi: 10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00161-2 . 10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00161-2 Armitage , D. , F. Berkes , A. Dale , E. Kocho-Schellenberg , and E. Patton , 2011 : Co-management and the co-production of knowledge: Learning to adapt in Canada’s Arctic . Global Environ. Change , 21 , 995 – 1004 , doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.04.006 . 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.04.006 Bal , M. , 1997 : Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. 2nd ed. University of Toronto Press, 254

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Jonathan Friedrich, Jannik Stahl, Gijsbert Hoogendoorn, and Jennifer M. Fitchett

interannual variability ( MacKellar et al. 2014 ), indirectly influenced by the El Niño phenomena ( Lennard 2019 ) and more locally affected by the southern annular mode, Indian Ocean dipole, and the Madden–Julian oscillation. In addition, several biases are noted in the literature among climate models for the African continent ( James et al. 2018 ). Numbers, motilities, and socioeconomic background of beach tourists are not documented in South Africa, and therefore extent of bias in this study is

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Kirsti Jylhä, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Kimmo Ruosteenoja, Hanna Niemi-Hugaerts, Krista Keisu, and Juha A. Karhu

southern Finland at the expense of the Dfc type with short and cool summers. Changes in the third level alone also occurred in the Mediterranean area ( Fig. 4a ). Integrated over the study domain, the fraction of areas indicating changes solely in third level subdivisions was 4%. Two likely contributors to the detected shifts of the climate zones in Europe are human-induced warming and fluctuations of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the latter possibly also having an anthropogenic component

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L. Jen Shaffer and Leocadia Naiene

food security threats. Focusing in on southern Mozambique, predictions for increasing El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strength and frequency—and thus bigger, more frequent, droughts—emerge for the next century. ENSO strongly affects annual and interannual rainfall variation. Historic climate record analyses link ENSO to two-thirds of droughts in this region, and climate scientists suspect ENSO as the likely cause of increasingly erratic precipitation timing and amounts since 1984 ( Coelho and

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