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Yan Zhu, Tim Li, Ming Zhao, and Tomoe Nasuno

forced diurnal variation (e.g., over land and ocean in the MC), HFW, and MJO. The discovery of two-way interaction between MJO and HFW may shed some light on improving the MJO simulations over the Maritime Continent in climate models. It has been shown that multiscale variabilities, ranging from diurnal cycle and high-frequency tropical waves to MJO and interannual time scales, are very active over the Maritime Continent. Scale interactions among these motions may have a profound impact on MJO

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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

processes. The reevaporation of nonprecipitating shallow convection confined by the large-scale downward motion over the central Indian Ocean ( Tseng et al. 2015 ), along with the enhanced radiative cooling ( Stephens et al. 2004 ), destabilizes local atmosphere. At the same time, the suppressed-heating-induced large-scale circulation produces two moistening sources: moist advection by anomalous easterlies and boundary layer moisture convergence in the anomalous easterlies through its interaction with

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See Yee Lim, Charline Marzin, Prince Xavier, Chih-Pei Chang, and Bertrand Timbal

certain phases of the MJO, they did not analyze the convection associated with the MJO outside of the immediate land areas surrounding the South China Sea. Furthermore, there were significant difficulties in using their proxy data to study the interaction mechanisms between cold surges and MJO in the most important fields: those of the deep convection and heavy rainfall. Thus, some key processes of the coupled dynamic and thermodynamic interactions could not be elucidated. Here we are proposing to use

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

understanding of the interaction among the diurnal cycle, convective activity, and large-scale circulation patterns, such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), is therefore highly desirable. More generally, the diurnal cycle of convection in the tropics still represents a challenge. For example, GCMs tend to predict a peak of convection at midday over land, while observations suggest this happens in the late afternoon (e.g., Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Betts and Jakob 2002 ; Bechtold et al. 2004 ; Dai and

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, Shuanglin Li, Harry Hendon, Oscar Alves, and Craig MacLachlan

-resolution Bureau of Meteorology Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) model (e.g., Alves et al. 2003 ), the intermediate-resolution Scale Interaction Experiment–Frontier Research Center for Global Change (SINTEX-F) model (e.g., Luo et al. 2005a , b ), and the high-resolution seasonal prediction version of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS-S1) model (e.g., Alves and Hudson 2015 ; Lim et al. 2016 ). Details about the three forecast models and the

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Jieshun Zhu, Wanqiu Wang, and Arun Kumar

of air–sea interaction. Observational diagnoses have shown coherent variations in surface heat fluxes, SST, and convection associated with the MJO (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1988 ; Shinoda et al. 1998 ; Woolnough et al. 2000 ; Kumar et al. 2013 ). Many numerical studies also noted improved MJO simulations when an atmosphere-only GCM (AGCM) is coupled to an ocean model (e.g., Flatau et al. 1997 ; Waliser et al. 1999 ; Kemball-Cook et al. 2002 ; Inness et al. 2003 ; Zhang et al. 2006

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is the leading mode of rainfall variability in many regions of the world, particularly in tropical islands and in continental regions adjacent to warm waters ( Dai 2001 ; Ohsawa et al. 2001 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Nesbitt and Zipser 2003 ; Yang and Smith 2006 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2008 ; Johnson 2011 ; Ruppert et al. 2013 ; Chen et al. 2016 ). The Maritime Continent (MC) is exemplary for this, where prominent land–sea breeze

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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

al. 2013 ; Moum et al. 2014 ), and Ocean Mixing and Monsoon/Air–Sea Interactions in the Northern Indian Ocean Regional Initiative (OMM-ASIRI; Wijesekera et al. 2016 ), mostly focused on the equatorial central Indian Ocean. Both observation and model studies show that the increase of daily mean SST can enhance the latent and sensible heat fluxes into the atmosphere, providing important feedbacks to the evolution of the MJO ( Seo et al. 2014 ; Moum et al. 2014 ). Regional oceanography and

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Fadli Syamsudin, Urip Haryoko, and Biao Geng

physical processes of the offshore migration and proposed possible mechanisms based on analyses of available observational data such as those from satellites, weather radars, and radiosondes launched from land sites, as well as numerical experiments. Warner et al. (2003) and Mapes et al. (2003b) proposed that gravity waves excited by nighttime radiative cooling of the elevated terrain of the Andes propagated offshore in the lower troposphere and destabilized the offshore atmosphere, contributing to

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

rainfall peak over the islands ( Ichikawa and Yasunari 2006 ; Fujita et al. 2011 ; Rauniyar and Walsh 2011 ; Sakaeda et al. 2017 ). With the arrival of the MJO envelope, in contrast, early-morning rainfall over the coastal and offshore regions is enhanced, while the diurnal variation over land is suppressed. A similar projection of diurnal rainfall variation onto the intraseasonal cycle has been documented in coastal South China ( Chen et al. 2019 ). Yet the interaction between the MC and MJO is

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