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B. J. H. Van de Wiel, R. J. Ronda, A. F. Moene, H. A. R. De Bruin, and A. A. M. Holtslag

and oscillations in the near-surface wind speed and temperature. At present, it is not clear whether this mechanism generates intermittent turbulence aloft—for example, near the low-level jet ( Vukelic and Cuxart 2000 ; Ha and Mahrt 2001 )—or that it generates intermittent turbulence near the surface via a direct surface–atmosphere interaction ( Revelle 1993 ). In this study we confine ourselves to the direct interaction of the lower stratified atmosphere (first tens of meters) with the surface

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Weiye Yao and Christiane Jablonowski

experiment) who reported on very infrequent, spontaneously generated SSWs (approximately one every few thousand days) in their idealized GCMs without topographic forcing. The idealized GCM simulations expose the dynamical interactions between the waves and the mean flow without the complexity of moisture processes, land–sea contrasts, or real topographic variations and make it easier to distinguish between causes and effects. However, none of the aforementioned investigators reported on simulations that

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Paul Pettré and Jean-Claude André

, if not the most, dramatic featureof the coastal climate of Antarctica is the very strongkatabatic winds blowing frequently from the polar plateau toward the sea. These katabatic winds contribute,together with the wind waves, to the breaking and dispersion of sea ice. Fluctuations of sea ice modify inturn the energy and momentum budgets of the atmosphere and influence the general circulation andclimate of the planet (Wendler et al. 1983). Ad61ie Land is well known to be a region where

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Syukuro Manabe, J. Leith Holloway Jr., and Hugh M. Stone

to be also affected by various factors such as the interaction with higher latitudes and land-sea contrast. It is noteworthy that these disturbances transport angular momentum across the equator in the uppertroposphere and strongly affect the budget of angular momentum in the model tropics.1. Introduction Recently a global atmospheric circulation model withrealistic orography was constructed at the GeophysicalFluid Dynamics Laboratory of ESSA. The tropical partof the model atmosphere, which

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Peter J. Webster and Ka Ming W. Lau

sufficiently sophisticated torepresent the basic structure of the atmosphere and theocean and be able to account for their interaction. 2. The model should be sufficiently simple and efficient to allow for extended integration for periods wellbeyond the time-scales of the ocean-atmosphereinteraction. 3. The model should include both the land and oceanregion (i.e., the oceans should be finite in lateral extent)and each region should be modeled explicitly. In this paper we will attempt to develop a

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Stefan Sobolowski, Gavin Gong, and Mingfang Ting

1. Introduction a. Potential influences of snow cover on large-scale circulation Anomalous continental-scale snow cover has the potential to influence both local and downstream climate owing to its radiative and thermal properties, which act to modify the overlying atmosphere (e.g., Barnett et al. 1989 ; Cohen and Rind 1991 ; Leathers and Robinson 1993 ; Cohen and Entekhabi 2001 ). These influences may occur from regional to hemispheric spatial scales and immediate to seasonal time scales

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T. P. Barnett, L. Dümenil, U. Schlese, E. Roeckner, and M. Latif

-ocean temperature contrast needed to initiate the monsoon. The remote responses are driven byheating anomalies associated with both large scale air-sea interactions and precipitation events. The model winds from the heavy snow experiment were used to drive an ocean model. The SST field in thatmodel developed a weak El Nifio in the equatorial Pacific. A coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulationperturbed only by anomalous Eurasian snow cover was also run and it developed a much stronger El Nifio inthe Pacific

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Bin Wang

described in this paper. Figure la indicates that the interannual variabilityof outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) exhibits maxima in the central equatorial Pacific and east of Borneoaround 130-E. There is a distinguished equatorial bandbetween 7-N and 5-S from 120-E to 80-W where theinterannual variance exceeds 1.58 times of the annualvariance (Fig. lb). The present analysis will focus onthis core region of ocean-atmosphere interaction,where SST, convection, and surface zonal wind anomalies all

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M. Antonelli and R. Rotunno

determine the dependence of the solutions on the external parameters (such as the surface heat flux and the Coriolis parameter). Our aim is to use this virtual laboratory to capture the essential physics of the sea breeze and thus determine some of its basic features, such as its horizontal and vertical scales as a function of the external parameters. Our basic experimental design considers a rotating, uniformly stratified, resting atmosphere that is suddenly heated at the surface over the “land” half

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Michael T. Montgomery and Brian F. Farrell

the enhanced omega responsein a conditionally neutral baroclinic atmosphere. A secondary development follows, called diabafic destabilizafion,that is associated with the production of low-level potential vorticity by diabatic processes. Diabafic destabilizafionrepresents a simple mechanism for maintaining the intensity of polar lows until they reach land. In exceptionalinstances of negligible upper-level forcing, the latter may also describe the gradual intensification of small-scalecyclones in

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