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Calum G. Turvey and Megan K. Mclaurin

that characterizes it as a limiting factor to plant growth, soil moisture appears to become the dominant climate variable affecting NDVI values ( Farrar et al. 1994 ; Nicholson and Farrar 1994 ; Udelhoven et al. 2009 ; Yang et al. 1998 ). Collectively, the work on relationships between NDVI, precipitation, and temperature is characterized by highly variable relationships including complex radiative interactions between the atmosphere, sensor view angle, and solar zenith angle, which all affect

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Jason Senkbeil, Jennifer Collins, and Jacob Reed

often accompanied by a spatial expansion of the wind field as the pressure gradient relaxes, thus reducing wind speed and peak gusts. Sustained winds and wind gusts over land are lower than wind speeds over the open ocean ( Sparks 2003 ). A category 3 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHS) at landfall is often quickly downgraded to a category 1 just two counties inland, but the exponential rate of decay varies according to storm size, storm forward speed, landfall angle, and landfall

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Christopher A. Fiebrich, Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska, Phillip B. Chilson, and Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little

Observing and Assimilation Systems for the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface , Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 7.6, https://ams.confex.com/ams/98Annual/webprogram/Paper333289.html . Carbone , R. E. , and Coauthors , 2012 : Thermodynamic Profiling Technologies Workshop Report to the National Science Foundation and the National Weather Service. NCAR Tech. Rep. NCAR/TN-488+STR, 80 pp., https://doi.org/10.5065/D6SQ8XCF . 10.5065/D6SQ8XCF Carlson , J. D. , and D. S. Arndt , 2008 : The Oklahoma

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Hugo M. A. M. Ricketts, and Dragoş Ene

they’re soaked to the limit with water and compelled to move about while sagging low all teeming with rain, and then in this heavy state they collide with one another and make those sounds of cracking and rumbling. Strepsiades: But who is it then who compels them to move, well isn’t it Zeus himself? Socrates: Not at all! It’s the swirl of the atmosphere. Strepsiades: The swirl? It was lost on me that Zeus just doesn’t exist but instead it’s swirl that rules the world. But you haven’t yet taught me

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Megan L. White and J. Anthony Stallins

comparison to population. Urban land cover and associated aerosol air pollution can modify thunderstorm convection ( Saide et al. 2015 ; Dou et al. 2015 ; Yang et al. 2016 ). As land cover changes, thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere change. Aerosols link to storm severity through their modification of the vertical development of thunderstorms and how quickly raindrops coalesce and fall ( Rosenfeld et al. 2008 ). Thunderstorms may also split in the vicinity of cities and then strengthen after

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Jessica Bolson and Kenneth Broad

http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ ). Methods for forecasting ENSO events have improved since the advent of dynamical seasonal climate prediction ( Cane et al. 1986 ; Wang et al. 2009 ). Because of both increased ocean monitoring and observation [associated with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program] and to improvements in coupled ocean–atmosphere climate modeling, SCF skill has improved since around the end of the twentieth century ( Wang et al. 2009 ; Smith et al. 2012 ). However

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Vikram M. Mehta, Cody L. Knutson, Norman J. Rosenberg, J. Rolf Olsen, Nicole A. Wall, Tonya K. Bernadt, and Michael J. Hayes

in our interactions with basin stakeholders are described in section 3 . Stakeholder-reported impacts of decadal dry and wet spells are described in section 4 . Usefulness of climate outlooks at decadal and longer time scales are outlined in sections 5 and 6 , respectively. Potential barriers to the use of decadal climate outlooks are described in section 7 . Recommendations made by stakeholders for future actions with respect to DCI are described in section 8 . Major conclusions of this

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Michael J. Lynch, Paul B. Stretesky, and Michael A. Long

distinction between weather and climate is time. Weather is typically defined in terms of conditions of the atmosphere such as humidity, precipitation, wind, temperature, and atmospheric pressure over a short time period, whereas climate refers to those conditions over a long period, usually a minimum of 30 years ( Rohli and Vega 2017 , p. 273). Thus, one (but certainly not the only) way that climate can be conceptualized is as the average atmospheric conditions in weather over a substantial period of

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Asher Siebert

, but shortly after the Last Glacial Maximum, it was considerably wetter ( Beyerle et al. 2003 ; deMenocal et al. 2000 ). Some of these transitions were quite abrupt and were forced by a combination of orbital forcing and the complex interaction of land surface, ocean, and atmospheric forcing ( Gasse 2000 ). This part of Africa is also prone to large decadal and multidecadal fluctuations in precipitation. In the relatively recent past, over the later portion of the twentieth century and into the

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Brent Boehlert, Ellen Fitzgerald, James E. Neumann, Kenneth M. Strzepek, and Jeremy Martinich

southwestern United States. In a global study, Burke et al. (2006) project that, by 2100, droughts will affect 30% of worldwide land area, up from only 1% of land area at present. However, some research suggests, but does not conclusively show, that greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may offset some of these effects (e.g., Strzepek et al. 2010 ). Strzepek et al. (2010) characterize U.S. drought risk under a suite of 22 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate models and three Special

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