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Julian F. Quinting, Michael M. Bell, Patrick A. Harr, and Sarah C. Jones

of ET. However, instead of completing transformation, Sinlaku reintensified ( Sanabia 2010 ) and regained typhoon intensity on 19 September (Foerster et al. 2013, manuscript submitted to Mon. Wea. Rev. ). At that time, Sinlaku exhibited a partial eyewall around the low-level circulation maximum that is here defined as the low-level center. The focus of the current study is 20 September when Sinlaku approached the primary midlatitude baroclinic zone to enter the final stage of ET. Sinlaku decayed

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Maxi Boettcher and Heini Wernli

probably related to the increased moisture availability in the ocean boundary layer during the warm season. In addition, the two Pacific peaks in June and October can be related to specific regional weather phenomena (see section 4b ). Fig . 3. Monthly number of DRWs during the years 2001–10 in the (a) North Atlantic and (b) North Pacific. The darker segments of the histogram in Fig. 3 mark the DRWs that intensify explosively as meteorological “bombs” with a SLP deepening of at least one Bergeron 2

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

been work to define RWPs in an automated manner, to follow them in a quasi-Lagrangian way, and to determine the properties of RWP objects. e. Scope and outline of this review This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about transient RWPs and their propagation along the upper-tropospheric midlatitude Rossby waveguide. It includes, in particular, new diagnostic methods, the association of RWPs with extreme weather, and the role of RWPs for predictability. We restrict our attention to

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Julia H. Keller, Sarah C. Jones, and Patrick A. Harr

tropical cyclone become a boundary feature of a slightly intensifying extratropical cyclone, embedded ahead of the upstream trough. While a clearly identifiable K e maximum is associated with Choi-Wan ( Fig. 9d ), the frontal wave is rather weakly amplified and does not have a clear energy maxima. Because of the weak baroclinicity in the ridge, the generation of K e via baroclinic conversion is only weak during the first days of interaction ( Fig. 9d , 19–21 September 2009) and only minor

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