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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

the second aerosol indirect effect was the culprit. Such a validation required a state-of-the-art remote sensing system, so Zhanqing Li submitted a successful proposal to deploy the AMF1 in the vicinity of Lake Taihu, which is a large lake in southern China. Proximity to this lake was important because it could be used to assist in the interpretation of accompanying satellite measurements. While modern China was beginning to embrace western science, it was unclear if the geopolitical boundaries

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Kerry Emanuel

,” and his formula for peak wind speed was where E is the available energy calculated from a tephigram by assuming moist adiabatic ascent in the eyewall, starting from saturation at sea surface temperature, and q is the fraction of the velocity that would occur if air conserved its angular momentum in the inflow. Kleinschmidt did not attempt to calculate that fraction from boundary layer considerations, but he did regard the steady hurricane vortex as having constant moist entropy along angular

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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

upper-air measurements ( Fig. 24-1a ). These boundary sites and wind profilers have not been and are not always available. For the SGP, the variational analysis scheme processes the original upper-air measurements from radiosondes and wind profilers over the analysis grid points ( Fig. 24-1a ) using the Cressman interpolation scheme ( Cressman 1959 ), which requires a background field from an NWP model’s operational analyses. Current variational analysis uses the operational analyses from the NOAA

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

reviews some of the history, describes the current state of practice, then postulates how meteorological information may be used even further in the future. Section 6 offers a summary, concluding remarks, and discussion of the prospects for future applications to aid the growing and urbanizing population. 2. Urban meteorology and climate a. Introduction to urban meteorology and climate In his landmark synopsis, Changnon (2005) laid out the definition, evolution, and implications of applied

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

System Model. MPIOM is a primitive equation model (C grid, z coordinates, free surface) with the hydrostatic and Boussinesq assumptions. It includes a bottom boundary layer scheme for the flow across steep topography, and uses a curvilinear orthogonal grid, which allows for a variety of configurations. A description of MPIOM can be found in Marsland et al. (2003) . A list of model development efforts that is current up to the year 2000 can be found in Griffies et al. (2000) . Any list is

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

interpretation algorithms and to exploit jointly U.S. and EU observation datasets. Further development of formal collaboration between U.S. ARM and EU programs would enhance the ability of scientists worldwide to take on science challenges about climate change. This chapter presents several European atmospheric profiling research observatories, development of European networking, and the current European research infrastructure ( section 2 ). Section 3 presents EU program initiatives of interest for future

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David Randall, Charlotte DeMott, Cristiana Stan, Marat Khairoutdinov, James Benedict, Rachel McCrary, Katherine Thayer-Calder, and Mark Branson

resolved on the CRM’s grid. Downdrafts resolved on the CRM’s grid can produce cold pools in the boundary layer. These processes are poorly resolved because of the CRM’s 4-km horizontal grid spacing, but the results suggest that an explicit representation with poor resolution can be more successful than a current-generation parameterization. b. The Great Red Spot Early work with the SP-CAM was based on the use of prescribed seasonally varying sea surface temperatures (SSTs). As first pointed out by

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Greg M. McFarquhar and Robert M. Rauber

location for the collection of papers reviewing the progress in atmospheric and related sciences over the last 100 years because the series was refocused in 2016 ( McFarquhar and Rauber 2019 ) to include collections of papers that summarize state-of-the-art knowledge not only in an established discipline but also in fields where rapid developments are currently being made. A monograph dedicated to a century of progress in the atmospheric and related sciences fits this description perfectly. The

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called the “Instantaneous Radiative Flux” (IRF) strategy, which consists of collecting data on the distribution of radiation and the radiatively active constituents of the atmosphere and the radiative properties of the lower boundary. The second involves the use of single-column models (SCMs) to develop and test cloud formation parameterizations. ARM programmatic objectives will be achieved as the testing of hypotheses leads to improved parameterizations for use in climate models. The activities of

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Isaac M. Held

with strongly idealized models. Much recent and current research in this area utilizes GCMs, but forced with idealized boundary conditions, in which the mean flow and eddies are free to adjust to each other. Placing this work in the context of earlier research on both stationary waves and storm tracks remains challenging. 10. The Hadley cell As implied in the schematic in Fig. 6-1 , in his essay on the general circulation Eady (1950) did not single out the Hadley cell for separate treatment; the

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