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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

primary lines (i) for the following reason: mixing is associated with the tidal current u , and not the tidal elevation η . Long-period tidal currents are very weak. For a basin of length L and depth H , the horizontal particle 2 velocity scales as where T is the characteristic period. For L = 1000 km, H = 1 km, and T = 18.6 yr, we have u = 10 −6 m s −1 . 3. Loder and Garrett on nodal mixing Loder and Garrett (1978 , hereinafter LG ) base their analysis on the published values

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Claudia Pasquero and Eli Tziperman

convective process. Mesoscale cyclonic eddies are considered key ingredients in the preconditioning process, acting to reduce the vertical stability in the water column and set the location of the convective plumes ( DiBattista et al. 2002 ). Convective mixing is associated with vertical plumes within the preconditioned region, and with nearly isopycnal slantwise motion associated with the baroclinic instability of the convectively induced geostrophic rim current around the convecting chimney ( Jones and

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

. McWilliams , and S. C. Doney , 1994 : Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary-layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys. , 32 , 363 – 403 . Larnicol , G. , P-Y. Le Traon , N. Ayoub , and P. De Mey , 1995 : Mean sea level and surface circulation variability of the Mediterranean Sea from 2 years of TOPEX/ Poseidon altimetry. J. Geophys. Res. , 100 , 25163 – 25177 . Leder , N. , and M. Orlić , 2004 : Fundamental Adriatic seiche recorded by current

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

loading, with the goal of introducing P a effects in future data-constrained runs ( Köhl et al. 2003 ). As most current modeling efforts omit the effects of P a , our experiments also provide an estimate of those omission errors, which can be useful for data assimilation efforts that examine high-frequency variability. We are also interested in clarifying how stratification affects the relation between surface and bottom pressure signals at high frequencies, an issue of increasing importance for

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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

time and use it as a reference for the computation of anomalies. The Combined Mean Dynamic Topography (CMDT) dataset ( Fig. 1a ), which is derived from satellite altimetry, in situ measurements, and a geoid model for the averaging period 1993–99 ( Rio and Hernandez 2004 ), provides a reference for the dynamic SSH pattern of MPI-OM. The control run of MPI-OM reproduces the main SSH features well ( Fig. 1b ); the largest deviations between the two SSH fields occur in regions of strong currents with

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

decadal trends, plus large interannual variability represented in the northern and southern annular modes, have provided a substantial fraction of the low-frequency wind forcing for subtropical and subpolar ocean circulation variability. In the North Atlantic, Curry and McCartney (2001) described an increase of about 30% in the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current transport between 1970 and 1995, forced by increases in wind stress and buoyancy fluxes. They showed a similarity between this

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D. E. Harrison and Mark Carson

deviations also are similar to their results in the western North Atlantic and North Pacific, and off the southeast coast of Australia, but can be quite different elsewhere. Overall, it appears that the broad range of standard deviations shown in Fig. 3 is reasonable, with regional values in excess of 3°C, in active boundary current and mesoscale eddy regions and in the interannually varying Tropics, and with minimum values around 0.5°C in the quieter parts of the ocean. Values south of about 30°S and

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