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Yuji Kitamura and Keiichi Ishioka

and in which the order between the linear and nonlinear terms is comparable. His pioneering study has motivated studies of rotating 2D turbulence as a problem of pattern formation. Vallis and Maltrud (1993) showed that the wave-turbulence boundary in wavenumber space has the smallest meridional wavenumber at the k x = 0 axis ( k x represents a zonal wavenumber) because of the anisotropy of the frequency of Rossby waves. They also elucidated the mechanism for the predominance of zonally

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R. K. Scott and L. M. Polvani

Fig. 1), where the azonal sector comprised “segment” wavenumbers. The current definition includes all isotropic wavenumbers, only excluding wavenumbers near the zonal axis, and is a more natural representation of the eddy field.] The azonal kinetic energy is a much larger fraction of the total energy for the cases with c r ≤ 10: over a third of the energy is contained in the azonal modes, compared with less than a tenth for c r ≥ 100. In other words, a larger fraction of the energy input into

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Thomas Jung and Peter B. Rhines

dataset is based on 6-month-long integrations with the ECMWF model for winters of the years 1982–2001. Three different resolutions were employed, that is, T L 95 and T L 159 with 60 levels (T95L60 and T159L60 hereafter) in the vertical and T L 255 with 40 levels in the vertical (T255L40) including automatic cyclone tracking. Details of the boundary layer and gravity wave parameterization can be found online ( http://www.ecmwf.int/research/ifsdocs ). 3. Results a. ERA-40 results 1) Pressure-drag time

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