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I. Gómez, S. Molina, J. Olcina, and J. J. Galiana-Merino

1. Introduction Evaluating people’s uses, perceptions, and interpretations of uncertainty in current weather forecasts across different contexts is important nowadays, as weather forecasts are extremely useful for a wide range of applications, for instance, in agriculture, energy, transport and tourism, and recreational sectors. These forecasts are based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) models that simulate the state and dynamics of the atmosphere. Therefore, weather forecasts are

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Rebecca Page and Lisa Dilling

sources 1) Current knowledge networks Managers primarily accessed information products directly from agency websites and portals, such as NRCS for snowpack data, USGS for streamflow data, and NOAA for temperature and precipitation forecasts. Only one manager regularly participated in university-based boundary activities such as the Western Water Assessment Climate Dashboard and the Colorado Climate Center Drought Early Warning System webinar; the other 13 interviewees were either vaguely familiar with

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Zack Guido, Valerie Rountree, Christina Greene, Andrea Gerlak, and Adrian Trotman

information, including seasonal climate forecasts (SCFs), and discussions on the implications of probable climate outcomes with users from climate-sensitive sectors. RCOFs represent a major international climate service effort that began in the late 1990s and that helps support early warning systems for, among others, drought conditions and malaria outbreaks. Currently, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) supports 15 RCOFs around the globe. While there is some evidence that RCOFs have helped

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S. Ziaja

drought in the western United States and subsequent record rain years, however, are bringing renewed attention to hydropower governance ( CEC 2017 ). For hydropower reservoirs with a flood control function, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) sets operational parameters for how much water a reservoir can store and when ( Willis et al. 2011 ). These parameters were developed over 60 years ago, based on observed climate, and do not allow for changes in operation based on currently observed weather

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Brian C. Zachry, William J. Booth, Jamie R. Rhome, and Tarah M. Sharon

al. (2015) stated that high-quality visualization material (e.g., maps, graphics, and photos) is essential for effective risk communication in current society, and that storm surge is most clearly depicted on a map that shows the height of water above the ground surface (i.e., inundation) and the inland extent of the flooding. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) have embarked on an intense outreach effort and are improving storm

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Jessica Kuonen, Flaxen Conway, and Ted Strub

and fishing, recreational boating and fishing, bar pilots, Coast Guard, and oil spill response though Web-based products ( Price and Rosenfeld 2012 ). A core group of these users, commercial fishermen, regularly risk personal safety, property, and economic loss ( Davis 2012 ; McDonald and Kucera 2007 ; Thorvaldsen 2013 ) and are particularly adept at seeking out sources of ocean condition information that include surface temperatures, currents, waves, and wind to inform their decisions ( Duncan

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Lee Tryhorn

planners, and hydrologists. Extreme precipitation events and their associated impacts, such as stormwater runoff and flooding, were used as a boundary object 2 to interact with participants ( Lynch et al. 2008 ). Topics discussed in the interviews included the participants’ experiences in dealing with the current stormwater regulations, what they considered to be the strengths and weaknesses of the program, suggestions for improving the program, their perceptions of climate vulnerability, how they

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Joanna Endter-Wada, Theresa Selfa, and Lisa W. Welsh

better define and understand drought phenomena. In a current paradigm shift for understanding drought, scholars and water managers are arguing for more proactive, risk-based management approaches to replace the reactive, crisis-management approaches generally characterizing drought responses ( Smakhtin and Schipper 2008 ; Wilhite 2005 ; Wilhite et al. 2007 ). There is growing recognition that droughts and other climate change–related events occur in social as well as natural contexts, which shape

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Scott Greene, Laurence S. Kalkstein, David M. Mills, and Jason Samenow

atmospheric component is the parallel version of the NCAR Community Climate Model, version 3.2 (CCM3). This model includes the latest versions of radiation, boundary physics, and precipitation physics. It also contains submodels that consider soil physics and vegetation ( Kiehl 2007 ; Kiehl et al. 1998 ; Collins et al. 2006 ; Dai et al. 2001 ). The historical estimates have been computed using the twentieth-century scenario (20C3M), which includes current estimates of twentieth-century total

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Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska, Christopher A. Fiebrich, J. D. Carlson, Andrea D. Melvin, Albert J. Sutherland, Kevin A. Kloesel, Gary D. McManus, Bradley G. Illston, James E. Hocker, and Reuben Reyes

. One of the current limitations of Mesonet’s observations is that they extend only up to 10 m above the ground surface. To mitigate this limitation, in the future Mesonet will expand its measurements into the lower atmosphere, likely through the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS). UAS have the potential to provide observations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) up to heights of several kilometers. The NRC (2009) reported that the lack of PBL measurements is a major source of uncertainty in

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