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Kevin C. Prince and Clark Evans

Cordillera, cold surges that propagate through eastern Brazil occur in the absence of both an intense surface anticyclone and highly amplified upper-tropospheric longwave pattern (not shown). These situations occur in the presence of a surface cyclone off the eastern coast of South America, allowing maritime polar air to flow equatorward west of the cyclone’s center ( Lupo et al. 2001 ). Fig . 1. Topographic map of South America with the synoptic climatology of cyclone (red) and anticyclone (blue) tracks

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Yueyue Yu, Ming Cai, Rongcai Ren, and Huug M. van den Dool

highly variable on synoptic scales. The main synoptic- and planetary-scale precursors to cold air outbreaks in North America include the variability of polar anticyclones ( Wexler 1951 ; Colucci and Davenport 1987 ), positive sea level pressure anomalies over the Alaska–Yukon border ( Walsh et al. 2001 ), and coupling of the ridge over the Arctic and the trough over the Great Lakes region ( Konrad 1996 ). For cold air surges in Asia, an abrupt expansion of the Siberian high toward East Asia plays a

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Zachary J. Handlos and Jonathan E. Martin

anomalous cold air and anomalous northerly wind over the East and South China Sea regions suggests that anomalous cold air advection is occurring there. Anomalously warm temperatures are present on the eastern side of the anomalous anticyclonic flow to the east of the “northerly cold surge” feature. b. East Asian winter monsoon cold surges and jet superpositions The EAWM is a boreal winter large-scale circulation phenomenon that is strongly a function of the strength of the Siberian–Mongolian surface

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Bo Pang and Riyu Lu

1. Introduction A cold surge over the South China Sea (SCS) is characterized by a period of strong winds and is one of the most hazardous weather phenomena occurring during the Asian winter monsoon ( Ramage 1971 ; Lau and Chang 1987 ; Chang et al. 2006 ; Chang et al. 2011 ). The arrival of a cold surge is often accompanied by the outbreak of northerly winds, an increase in surface pressure, and a decrease in the surface air temperature ( Chang et al. 1983 ; Boyle and Chen 1992 ; Chan and

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Yueyue Yu, Rongcai Ren, and Ming Cai

the Great Lakes region ( Konrad 1996 ). Elsewhere, in East Asia, the intensification and expansion of the Siberian high are known to be the triggering mechanism for cold air surges ( Ding 1990 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ; Gong and Ho 2004 ; Takaya and Nakamura 2005 ). Palmer (2014) pointed out that intensifying Rossby waves within the jet stream, excited by the latent heat release over the warming tropical west Pacific may have contributed to the extremely cold 2013–14 winter in the United States

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Hoffman H. N. Cheung, Wen Zhou, Sai-ming Lee, and Hang-wai Tong

.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<0057:UTPOSS>2.0.CO;2 . Ding , Y. , 1990 : Buildup, air-mass transformation and propagating of Siberian high and its relations to cold surge in East Asia . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 44 , 281 – 292 , doi: 10.1007/BF01026822 . Ding , Y. , 1994 : Monsoons over China. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 420 pp . Ding , Y. , Z. Wang , Y. Song , and J. Zhang , 2008 : Causes of the unprecedented freezing disaster in January 2008 and its possible association with the global warming . Acta Meteor. Sin

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Sunyong Kim, Jong-Seong Kug, and Kyong-Hwan Seo

.-H. , C.-H. Ho , B.-M. Kim , and W.-T. Kwon , 2005 : Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on wintertime surface air temperature and cold surges in East Asia . J. Geophys. Res. , 110 , D11104 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005408 . 10.1029/2004JD005408 Jeong , J.-H. , B. Kim , C. Ho , and Y. Noh , 2008 : Systematic variation in wintertime precipitation in East Asia by MJO-induced extratropical vertical motion . J. Climate , 21 , 788 – 801 , https://doi.org/10

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Yuntao Jian, Xiaoxia Lin, Wen Zhou, Maoqiu Jian, Marco Y. T. Leung, and Paxson K. Y. Cheung

enhances the meridional flow and transports more cold air from the polar region, which increases cold mass convergence over Siberia and intensifies the Siberian high ( Chang 2004 ; Ding and Krishnamurti 1987 ; Ding 1990 , 2004 ; Takaya and Nakamura 2005a , b ). Therefore, during winters with more (less) blocking, an intensified (weakened) Siberian high tends to strengthen (weaken) the EAWM, with more (fewer) cold surges breaking out toward East Asia ( Joung and Hitchman 1982 ; Wu and Leung 2009

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

next section to reveal the important differences that are required for cold events to reach lower latitudes. The cold event of January 2016 will be briefly described after the presentation of the composite analysis. Previous studies have documented cold air outbreaks in East Asia (termed as cold surges in general). Here, we are focused on those strong cold air outbreaks over a large area of eastern China. Although the mid- to high-latitude circulation features of the strong cold events revealed in

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Kevin A. Biernat, Lance F. Bosart, and Daniel Keyser

incursions of cold air masses into a region that result in an episode of anomalously low surface temperatures (e.g., Konrad 1996 ; Walsh et al. 2001 ; Cellitti et al. 2006 ). TPVs are cold-core features and are associated with anomalously cold air throughout the depth of the troposphere (e.g., Cavallo and Hakim 2010 ). Several studies show evidence of tropospheric-deep cold pools located within and beneath TPVs and upper-tropospheric cyclonic PV anomalies (e.g., Defant and Taba 1957 ; Boyle and

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