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Jonathan M. Lilly, Peter B. Rhines, Martin Visbeck, Russ Davis, John R. N. Lazier, Friedrich Schott, and David Farmer

1. Introduction The Labrador Sea is the site of some of the deepest convection in the world ocean ( Lazier 1980 ; Clarke and Gascaard 1983 ). A harsh climate persists over the basin during winter, with westerly and northerly winds bringing cold air from Canada and the Arctic ( Fig. 1 ). Air temperatures at nearby Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay, north of Hudson Strait) can average colder than −30°C for a winter month, when northerly and northwesterly winds can average 6 m s −1 . Seaward of the

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J. S. Godfrey

equator, and around theeastern and poleward boundaries; the region of warm water generated as a result near the eastern boundaryis separated from the colder ocean interior by a "front," which spreads inward via internal Rossby waves. The net effect of all these motions is to spread the pool of warm water, which was initially concentratedin a small area, out over the rest of the ocean; the potential energy released in this process is dissipated byfriction, mainly against the western boundary. An

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John Steffen and Mark Bourassa

, subthermocline water into the mixed layer. Then, the magnitude of SST cooling under the TC and within the cold wake is reduced. This feedback can facilitate a more favorable thermodynamic environment for the TC since enthalpy fluxes into the storm are maintained. The salinity-driven stability mechanism has been proposed in previous literature as a beneficial air–sea interaction for TC intensification ( Jacob and Koblinsky 2007 ; Wang et al. 2011 ; Balaguru et al. 2012 ; Neetu et al. 2012 ; Jourdain et al

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T. J. Simons

simulate the behaviorof the natural environment by high-speed computors.In sharp contrast to atmospheric models, which havebenefited continually from standard meteorological observations and have been verified by decades of operational numerical weather forecasting, oceanographicmodeling has been seriously handicapped by a lack ofproper observations, and verification has been mostlyrestricted to readily observable phenomena such asstorm surges. In recent years, considerable efforts havebeen made to

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Cathrine Sandal and Doron Nof

situation ( Figs. 2 and 3 ). The NA will be viewed as a box that receives warm, salty water from the Southern Ocean and cold, fresh water from the Pacific through the BS. Deep water is formed in accordance to the salinity of the box and the heat flux to the atmosphere. Using this model, we will show that the opening of the BS and the increase in mean oceanic and atmospheric temperature are connected beyond a mere coincidence. In section 2 we introduce the new model, which is no more than a blend of

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Irena Vaňková and David M. Holland

1. Introduction Calving-generated ocean waves are tsunami-like waves, which have the potential to cause sudden and large mixing events and affect melt rates at the glacier ocean interface. Furthermore, waves generated at the open ocean have been hypothesized to have an influence on calving. Tides or other long-period nontidal components of sea level (i.e., surges) put the glacier out of buoyant equilibrium and increase stresses, both of which can trigger calving. Bending forces due to

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Klaus Wyrtki

. 16, Ocean and Aquatic Sciences, Dept. of Environment, Victoria, B.C., 38 PP.Hunkins, K. L., 1965: Tide and :storm surge observations in the Chukchi Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr., 10, 29-39.Kowalik, Z., 1981: A study of the iM: tide in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean. Norwegian Res. BulL--Modeling, Identification and Control, 2, 201-223. , and N. Untersteiner, 1978: A study of the M: tide in the Arctic Ocean. Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z., 31, 216-229.Mattbews, J. B., 1971: Long period gravity waves and

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Robert S. Pickart, Alison M. Macdonald, G. W. K. Moore, Ian A. Renfrew, John E. Walsh, and William S. Kessler

1. Introduction The fall and winter atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean is dominated by a progression of low pressure systems propagating from west to east ( Overland and Hiester 1980 ). These systems originally form off the Asian continent due to the contrast between different air masses: cold, dry air originating from Siberia, and warm, moist maritime air from the subtropical Pacific ( Terada and Hanzawa 1984 ). The low pressure centers tend to be associated with large

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David A. Williams, David M. Schultz, Kevin J. Horsburgh, and Chris W. Hughes

colder air compared to the sea surface, and a black line contour at −13°C indicating instability. On the right, (iii) shows the percentage of events with CAPE > 100 J kg −1 . The scales for CAPE occurrence differ among (a)–(c). All synoptic environments indicated that the dominant synoptic weather feature at the time of meteotsunami detection were extratropical cyclones north or west of the United Kingdom ( Fig. 7 ). Although sea level low pressure centers were associated with all meteotsunamis and

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Joseph Chi Kan Huang and Peter W. Sloss

.lated, there are still many areas as large as 5- longitude x 5- latitude without a single reliable measurement. In the Great Lakes, the situation is not muchbetter and, consequently, numerical studies havebeen restricted to certain observable phenomena,such as seiches and storm surges. However, afterthe April 1972-March 1973 International Field Yearfor the Great Lakes (IFYGL), Lake Ontario becamethe best surveyed large body of water suitable forsimulation studies because of the

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