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Yingying Zhao, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Daoxun Sun, and Samantha Stevenson

1. Introduction Pacific decadal variability (PDV), here defined as variability on time scales longer that 6–8 years, has long been recognized for its strong impacts on global climate as well as regional weather and marine ecosystems, particularly over North America and Asia ( Roemmich and McGowan 1995 ; Mantua et al. 1997 ; Martinez et al. 2009 ; Alexander et al. 2010 ; Deser et al. 2010 ; Liu 2012 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2013 ; Chen and Wallace 2015 ; Liu and Di Lorenzo 2018 ). Recent

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Scott J. Weaver

1. Introduction During the latter half of the twentieth century a warm season negative surface temperature anomaly developed over the central U.S. in the midst of continental warming. This observed cooling trend dubbed the “warming hole” ( Kunkel et al. 2006 ) reached a peak in the 1990s, however, it has weakened during the most recent decade, suggesting that decadal climate variability may be influential in the temporal fluctuations of Great Plains surface temperature anomalies. The extent to

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Chihiro Miyazaki and Tetsuzo Yasunari

Southeast Asia as 0.2°–0.3°C decade −1 . Given the small amplitude of temperature variations in the tropics, these values are noteworthy. In contrast, Kubota and Terao (2004) described a cooling trend since the last half of the 1970s in the interannual variation of the annual mean tropical tropospheric temperature. Some of these temperature trends have been explained by associated climate periodic variabilities, in addition to the anthropogenic climate change. Many studies (e.g., Hurrell and van Loon

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Martha W. Buckley, David Ferreira, Jean-Michel Campin, John Marshall, and Ross Tulloch

1. Introduction In a recent review paper, Lozier (2010) concluded that the most significant question concerning variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is the role of the AMOC in creating decadal SST anomalies. Furthermore, she noted that no observational study to date has successfully linked SST changes to AMOC variability. The hypothesis that the AMOC plays an active role in decadal climate variability is rooted in the role of the AMOC in the mean meridional

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G. J. Boer

deviation of temperature and precipitation as climate warms together with changes in climate variability at longer time scales in terms of changes in decadal potential predictability. For climate, the temperature, precipitation, or other variable may be considered as the sum of an externally forced component Ω and an internally generated natural variability ω . The internally generated component may be further decomposed into a long time-scale potentially predictable component ν and a remaining

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Gerald A. Meehl and Julie M. Arblaster

-amplitude El Niño–like SST anomalies ( White et al. 1998 ; Meehl and Arblaster 2009 ; Meehl et al. 2009a ). Second, there is evidence that decadal time-scale climate variability in the Atlantic sector could affect climate in the Indo-Pacific region (e.g., Kucharski et al. 2007 ). Third, decadal time-scale variability associated with the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO; Power et al. 1999 ) produces low-amplitude positive and negative SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific with connections to Asian

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

1. Introduction In the North Pacific basin, low-frequency variability in sea surface temperature (SST) has been observed to be characterized by a decadal time scale. Commonly referred to as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ), the spatial pattern of this mode has a characteristic “horseshoe” shape, with opposite signs between the extremum in the western and central Pacific and that localized to the eastern rim of the basin. Its time evolution displays characteristic

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Arne Biastoch, Claus W. Böning, Julia Getzlaff, Jean-Marc Molines, and Gurvan Madec

water mass transformation may be blurred by a broad spectrum of “noise,” such as higher-frequency fluctuations related to local wind forcing or internal ocean dynamics (e.g., Baehr et al. 2004 ). The objective of this study is to contribute to unraveling the characteristics and dynamical causes of midlatitude MOC variability on interannual–decadal time scales by using a sequence of experiments with regional and global ocean models. Present understanding of MOC variability on various time scales

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Bo Qiu, Niklas Schneider, and Shuiming Chen

1. Introduction Decadal variability in the midlatitude North Pacific has received considerable attention in recent years because of its impact upon the Pacific marine ecosystems and long-term weather fluctuations over the North America continent. Comprehensive reviews on the North Pacific decadal variability can be found in recent articles by Pierce et al. (2001) , Mantua and Hare (2002) , Miller et al. (2004) , and the references listed therein. Analyses of the sea surface temperature (SST

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Yuanlong Li, Weiqing Han, Lei Zhang, and Fan Wang

in biodiversity patterns ( Depczynski et al. 2013 ; Pearce and Feng 2013 ; Wernberg et al. 2013 ). This event was succeeded by two weaker but also influential warming events in the following two austral summers, exerting persistent stress on local environment ( Feng et al. 2015 ; Zhang et al. 2017 ). Decadal SST variability in the SEIO is invoked to explain the reemergence of Ningaloo Niño/Niña. Specifically, the rapid decadal warming of the SEIO under La Niña–like condition of the Pacific

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