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Youkyoung Jang and David M. Straus

1. Introduction One central theme in the study of seasonal predictability is the influence of persistent tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on both the tropical and extratropical circulations. A tropical SST anomaly (assumed positive) tends to increase both low-level convergence and moisture ( Lindzen and Nigam 1987 ; Raymond 1994 ), thereby promoting anomalous deep convection and hence diabatic heating. The heating is balanced by anomalies in rising motion (in the time mean

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Douglas E. Tilly, Anthony R. Lupo, Christopher J. Melick, and Patrick S. Market

contribution of the diabatic process to the intensification of a blocking event in the SH. One such study, however, by Sáez de Adana and Colucci (2005) examines more than 10 cases of blocking in the Southern Hemisphere, and their results imply an indirect role for upstream convection in the formation of blocking events using the vorticity and divergence equations. This supports the results of Renwick and Revell (1999) , who also infer a role for diabatic heating through upstream convection as well. In

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

). This diabatic heating sits at the nexus of mesoscale and intraseasonal-scale interactions in the tropics. The diabatic heating arising from cloud processes may be broadly categorized as convective or stratiform in origin, each of which have fundamentally different characteristic vertical latent heating profiles ( Ahmed et al. 2016 ). Deep convective precipitation is associated with heating throughout the troposphere, while deep stratiform precipitation from thunderstorm anvils is characterized by

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Gan Zhang and Zhuo Wang

analyses, which suggests that diabatic heating is regularly involved in wave breaking. We note that the warm conveyor belts considered by Madonna et al. (2014) include only events with intense ascending from the lowermost troposphere; it is possible that moderate diabatic heating and ascending motion contribute to wave breaking regularly. A key step toward better understanding and predicting breaking waves during the warm season is to characterize their life cycle in a realistic environment. In this

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Robert S. Ross, T. N. Krishnamurti, and S. Pattnaik

(2001) , Hopsch et al. (2007) , Ross and Krishnamurti (2007) , Chen et al. (2008) , and others have documented two tracks for AEW disturbances, both of which may be involved in tropical cyclone formation. Ross et al. (2009) used analyzed fields to show that AEWs exhibiting both positive barotropic energy conversion and strong diabatic heating in organized convection were the waves that developed during the NAMMA field experiment. Cornforth et al. (2009) used an idealized model to study the

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Yuya Takane, Hiroaki Kondo, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Jin Katagi, Osamu Nagafuchi, Koyomi Nakazawa, Naoki Kaneyasu, and Yoshihiro Miyakami

wind (Fig. 16 in Takane and Kusaka 2011 ) was the dominant factor. This foehnlike wind is similar to type II except that the temperature is more greatly increased by diabatic heating with subgrid-scale turbulent diffusion and sensible heat flux from the ground ( Takane and Kusaka 2011 ; Takane et al. 2015 ). In other words, the foehnlike wind has the features of a sum of the traditional dry foehn effect with adiabatic heating plus dry-diabatic heating (sensible heat flux) from the ground surface

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Ji Nie and Bowen Fan

. However, most previous studies of QG ω analyses only focus on the dynamically forced vertical motion, those associated with the adiabatically balanced flow. In the EPEs, there is a large amount of diabatic heating due to the water vapor condensation, and the diabatic heating also induces significant large-scale vertical motion ( Horinouchi and Hayashi 2017 ). Recent studies estimated that more than half of the large-scale vertical motion in EPEs is caused by diabatic heating ( Nie et al. 2016

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Steven C. Chan and Sumant Nigam

1. Introduction The earth’s atmosphere is primarily heated from below by the sensible, latent, and radiative (longwave) heat fluxes originating at the land surface. Related flux divergence and water phase change leads to diabatic heating of the atmosphere. Atmospheric circulation arises in response to the horizontal and vertical variations of heating and their influence on temperature and, in turn, modulates diabatic heating itself through impact on the heat fluxes. The diabatic heating

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Hugh S. Baker, Tim Woollings, and Cheikh Mbengue

–like forcings, quantifying and characterizing jet sensitivities is also useful in understanding the response of the jets to natural variability such as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation ( Sutton and Dong 2012 ) and ENSO ( Lu et al. 2008 ) and in assessing the sensitivity to model biases in the position of diabatic heating ( Hawcroft et al. 2017 ). More generally, heating experiments such as this study can also be used in understanding the role of diabatic heating in modifying the atmospheric mean state

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Clinton T. Schmidt and Timothy J. Garrett

specific aspects of the relevant physics. Here, we look at the response of cirrus clouds to local thermal radiative flux divergence within cloud condensate. The discussion that follows largely neglects precipitation, synoptic-scale motions, and shear dynamics to facilitate description of a simple theoretical framework within a parameter space of two dimensionless numbers. A similar approach has been employed previously to constrain small-scale interactions between diabatic heating and atmospheric

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