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Robert Cifelli, Timothy Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, Nick Guy, Edward J. Zipser, Jon Zawislak, and Robert Holzworth

characteristics in these geographically distinct environments. Our goal is to better understand how the horizontal and vertical structure of precipitation changes with geographical location. Because the vertical structure of precipitation is closely tied to diabatic heating which, in turn, feeds back to the evolution of the AEW, such information is critical for understanding the role of MCS latent heating in the genesis, growth, and transition of some AEWs into tropical cyclones ( Berry and Thorncroft 2005

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Wei Zhong, Da-Lin Zhang, and Han-Cheng Lu

dynamical stability regimes for these waves (see Fig. 6 ). It is of interest that the condition of Q > 0 occurs in both the core (i.e., r < 10 km) and outer ( r > 60 km) regions where little diabatic heating is present, whereas Q < 0 takes place within the annulus of 10 km < r < 60 km, roughly in the eyewall convective region ( Fig. 7 ). This implies that the eye and outer regions allow for the coexistence of VRWs and IGWs with separable physical characteristics, whereas the eyewall region

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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

flows ( Fig. 5b ), suggesting that the basic state in the vicinity of the ITCZ was both barotropically and baroclinically unstable ( Charney and Stern 1962 ). NS97 show that the Charney–Stern instability is a necessary condition for the ITCZ breakdown and rollup as a result of the development of MCVs, whereas Molinari et al. (1997 , 2000 ) indicate that the sign reversal of PV gradients is one of the important signals for TCG. Since diabatic heating in the ITCZ tends to generate a low-level PV

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