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Jonathan P. Fram, Maureen A. Martin, and Mark T. Stacey

during the ebb–flood transition ( Fram 2005 ). Scalars at the ocean–estuary interface, such as salts, are transported by these flow processes. Here, we characterize the effect of each process on salinity exchange under different oceanic conditions, tidal forcing, and freshwater input. a. Estuarine flux decomposition Cross-sectionally integrated salt transport can be described quantitatively using the advection–diffusion equation ( Kay et al. 1996 ; Geyer and Nepf 1996 ), with rivers advecting salt

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Anja Goldbach and Wilhelm Kuttler

. 2008 ; Granger and Hedstrom 2011 ), or combining flux gradient and model methods (e.g., Elo 2007 ). Furthermore, sensible heat flux can be measured directly using scintillometers, while latent heat flux has to be assessed indirectly if this method is used (e.g., McJannet et al. 2011 ; Bouin et al. 2012 ). However, it was possible to determine both heat fluxes directly using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. This method has already been established for various lake surfaces. One of the longest

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Jatin Kala, Mark Decker, Jean-François Exbrayat, Andy J. Pitman, Claire Carouge, Jason P. Evans, Gab Abramowitz, and David Mocko

-sided surface area of leaf per ground surface area. LAI is critical in any LSM since it affects the albedo of the terrestrial surface and hence the amount of net radiation available to drive sensible and latent heat. LAI also affects the partitioning of net radiation between sensible and latent heat fluxes ( Verstraete and Dickinson 1986 ) because it controls the surface area of vegetation in direct contact with the atmosphere and affects the efficiency by which water can be transferred from within the

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Maithili Sharan and Piyush Srivastava

1. Introduction Monin and Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory ( Monin and Obukhov 1954 ) is widely used to estimate the stability parameter (= z / L , where z is the height above the ground, and L is the Obukhov length) and surface fluxes in atmospheric models for weather forecasting as well as for air quality and climate modeling ( Arya 1988 ; Beljaars and Holtslag 1991 ; Garratt 1994 ; Oleson et al. 2008 ; Skamarock et al. 2008 ; Jimenez et al. 2012 ; Giorgi et al. 2012 ; Pielke 2013

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Bruce A. Warren

1. Introduction In stationary conditions at a level sea surface, the vertical velocity ( w ) that is induced by evaporation ( E ) and precipitation ( P ) is nearly ( E − P ). In recognition that the mass flux into (or out of) the atmosphere is of freshwater alone, attempts have been made to improve the representation: w = ( E − P )/(1 − S ), where S is the mass-fraction salinity, at the sea surface (e.g., Schmitt et al. 1989 ); or w = ρ F ( E − P )/[ ρ (1 − S )], where ρ is

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B. Curry, C. M. Lee, and B. Petrie

created using further low-passed data (10-day cutoff to reduce tidal and meteorological variability) and spatially averaged into domains defined by depth (0–150, 200–250, and 500 m) and location (e.g., the shelves and WGSC–BIC frontal zone). The mean and variable fields were mapped onto a regular, two-dimensional grid with 4-m cells at depths <150 m and 10-m cells at depths >150 m at a horizontal resolution of 5 km (see appendix B of online supplement). c. Flux calculations Daily volume, freshwater

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Ludos-Herve Ayina, Abderrahim Bentamy, Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, and Gurvan Madec

1. Introduction One of the tasks of operational oceanography is to use a numerical model to simulate and forecast the oceanic general circulation on various spatial and temporal scales. The modeling of the oceanic circulation requires accurate knowledge of the turbulent fluxes exchanged at the ocean–atmosphere interface. The main surface fluxes involved in this exchange are the momentum flux (wind stress), the turbulent heat fluxes (latent and sensible), and the freshwater fluxes (evaporation

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Masanori Konda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Hiroyuki Tomita, and Meghan F. Cronin

north–south contrast of the ocean surface structure can affect the modification of the air mass through changes in the exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum. The large heat flux in the KE region is correlated with the basin-scale air–sea coupling systems such as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and other subsequent modes ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Bond et al. 2003 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2008 ). Previous studies have pointed out that the atmospheric circulation field

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Edgar L. Andreas

, thus, reclaim some of the sensible heat they have lost. Quantifying the net heating of the atmosphere that is mediated by spray has therefore been illusive. The rate of this net heating is usually termed the enthalpy flux and is the sum of the total air–sea sensible and latent heat fluxes ( Businger 1982 ). I use the adjective “total” here to recognize the possibility that the relevant fluxes comprise contributions from both the usual interfacial sensible and latent heat fluxes (molecular

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María Aristizábal and Robert Chant

1. Introduction The along-channel salinity structure in estuaries is the result of two competing processes: the advection of freshwater oceanward as a result of river output and the flux of salt into the estuary because of processes such as steady shear dispersion and tidal oscillatory salt flux ( Hansen and Rattray 1965 ; Zimmerman 1986 ; Lerczak et al. 2006 ). The vertical salinity structure is maintained by a competition between the straining of the horizontal salinity gradient, which is

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