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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

scheme ( Grell and Dévényi 2002 ) was used only in domains D01 and D02; no cumulus parameterization scheme was introduced in domain D03. Other major physics schemes involved included the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for Global climate models ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ; Iacono et al. 2000 ) shortwave–longwave radiation scheme, the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Oregon State University, Air Force, and

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Daniel Rothenberg and Chien Wang

and indirect radiative forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: A review . Rev. Geophys. , 38 , 513 –543 , doi: 10.1029/1999RG000078 . Karydis , V. A. , S. L. Capps , A. G. Russell , and A. Nenes , 2012 : Adjoint sensitivity of global cloud droplet number to aerosol and dynamical parameters . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 12 , 9041 – 9055 , doi: 10.5194/acp-12-9041-2012 . Khvorostyanov , V. I. , and J. A. Curry , 2006 : Aerosol size spectra and CCN activity spectra: Reconciling the

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Camille M. Sultana, Olga Laskina, Jonathan Trueblood, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Kimberly A. Prather, Vicki Grassian, and Paul J. DeMott

1. Introduction Ambiguity in the concentrations, sources, composition, and cloud activation properties of naturally occurring aerosol represent a large source of the uncertainty in global model simulations of cloud radiative forcing ( Carslaw et al. 2013 ). This study addresses one critical aspect of aerosol–cloud interactions: characterization of marine ice nucleating particles (INPs). Atmospheric INPs are rare particles (e.g., approximately 1 in 10 5 aerosol particles in the free troposphere

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Wojciech W. Grabowski and Hugh Morrison

from the effects of different flow realizations is difficult. One possibility is to consider high-resolution convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP)-type simulations driven by observed meteorology. If the simulation domain is large enough, such an approach includes many clouds and thus incorporates feedbacks between cloud processes and the large-scale environment. If the simulation period is long, say, many days, such simulations sample realistic meteorological conditions (forcings

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Francesca Malfatti, Camille M. Sultana, Christopher Lee, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Kathryn A. Moore, Gavin C. Cornwell, Douglas B. Collins, Kimberly A. Prather, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Farooq Azam, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Paul J. DeMott

.1038/nature14986 . 10.1038/nature14986 Yun , Y. , and J. E. Penner , 2013 : An evaluation of the potential radiative forcing and climatic impact of marine organic aerosols as heterogeneous ice nuclei . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 40 , 4121 – 4126 , doi: 10.1002/grl.50794 . 10.1002/grl.50794 Zelenyuk , A. , D. Imre , L. A. Cuadra-Rodriguez , and B. Ellison , 2007 : Measurements and interpretation of the effect of a soluble organic surfactant on the density, shape and water uptake of

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 11 , 11 951 – 11 975 , doi: 10.5194/acp-11-11951-2011 . Zhao , C. , X. Liu , L. R. Leung , B. Johnson , S. A. McFarlane , W. I. Gustafson , J. D. Fast , and R. Easter , 2010 : The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa: Modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 10 , 8821

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Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Monika Kohn, Berko Sierau, Assaf Zipori, Ian Crawford, Gary Lloyd, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Piotr Kupiszewski, Martin Steinbacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

and be able to distinguish them from long-term climatic effects and feedbacks. Furthermore, to quantify the anthropogenic aerosol effect in terms of the radiative forcing of the climate system, an understanding of the potential of the natural background aerosol to form ice-containing clouds is essential ( Lohmann and Kärcher 2002 ). This requires long-term (over periods from weeks to months) and recurrent measurements at the same locations. To our knowledge, only two long-term studies of INP

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