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K. Yoshimura and M. Kanamitsu

1. Introduction Integration of a regional numerical model requires time-varying forcing fields at the lateral boundaries. These forcing fields are taken from the larger scale model forecasts or analysis, either from a global model or from a coarser resolution regional model that covers the target domain. The latter method is known as a multiple nesting. A regional model that uses some form of spectral nudging to reduce the systematic error of the model ( Kida et al. 1991 ; von Storch et al

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Jeffrey Coogan and Brian Dzwonkowski

1. Introduction Understanding the salt balance in estuaries is an important process to examine how the salinity structure responds to river, wind, and tidal forcing on subtidal time scales. This dynamic relationship among salinity structure, forcing conditions, and feedbacks can be broken into river forcing, baroclinic exchange, and mixing components. From this simple balance, researchers have been able to describe the salt storage of a system and how the salinity structure and estuary length

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Ben Kravitz, Douglas G. MacMartin, Philip J. Rasch, and Andrew J. Jarvis

1. Introduction One of the cornerstone problems in climate science is understanding the climate system’s response to changes in climate forcing agents, such as the concentration of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases, total solar irradiance, and different types of aerosols. For example, formulating any climate target or emissions path requires knowledge of how to compare the effects of different greenhouse gases with different radiative properties and atmospheric lifetimes ( Fuglestvedt et al

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Joseph Pedlosky

cooling, uniform in the down-channel direction, produced an evolution of the current in that direction such that an along-channel pressure gradient in geostrophic balance drove fluid to the right-hand boundary of the channel where it underwent strong sinking. In contrast to earlier work, the model develops a mixed layer of very weak but nonzero vertical stratification in which the sinking occurs but the lateral temperature gradients in the layer drive a geostrophic flow forcing the downwelling. This

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Mark R. Jury and David M. Sanchez

motion, geopotential height, satellite outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and winds. As the analysis is focused on baroclinic flood events in the satellite era, it is believed that the NCEP–NCAR data will provide an adequate description of the large-scale meteorological forcing ( Carter and Elsner 1997 ). In addition to the composite analysis, we investigate the predictability of flood events by considering climate and weather model data at lead times from days to weeks, and we study three

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Maria A. A. Rugenstein, Jonathan M. Gregory, Nathalie Schaller, Jan Sedláček, and Reto Knutti

1. Introduction and tropospheric adjustment The response of the global energy budget to an external perturbation of the energy content can be described by the heat uptake of ocean, ice, and land ( N ), the perturbation or radiative forcing ( F ), and the feedback response ( λT ), with the climate feedback parameter λ and temperature anomaly T : with the heat capacity of the climate system, C . Changes that are mediated by the climate system’s response to the perturbation are called feedback

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Eui-Seok Chung and Brian J. Soden

1. Introduction Climate feedbacks amplify or dampen the initial radiative perturbation induced by a forcing agent through changes in climate variables in response to global-mean surface temperature change. Intermodel differences in climate feedbacks are widely accepted as the primary cause for intermodel spread in the projected future climate changes in response to imposed radiative forcings (e.g., Cess et al. 1990 ; Zhang et al. 1994 ; Colman 2003 ; Bony et al. 2006 ). However, model

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Meelis J. Zidikheri and Jorgen S. Frederiksen

1. Introduction The attribution of climate change to a particular forcing agent (e.g., greenhouse gases, aerosols, volcanic activity, land use) is a problem of great significance in climate science. The most established systematic methodology of climate change detection and attribution is the “fingerprint” method ( Hasselmann 1993 ; Hegerl et al. 1996 ; Hasselmann 1997 ), which is a statistical method of relating the observed climate response to model responses. In this approach, one needs

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Christopher M. Aiken and Matthew H. England

ice shields the air–sea exchange of gases, including carbon dioxide, so it fundamentally controls the rate of CO 2 uptake by the world’s oceans. The effects upon climate of freshwater forcing due to ice melt have been discussed in a number of previous studies. A decay in the AABW and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) production rates due to melting of Antarctic land ice has been suggested as a possible trigger for the Bolling–Allerod warming ( Weaver et al. 2003 ). Saenko et al. (2003

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Adam R. Edson and Peter R. Bannon

1. Introduction Rossby’s (1938) introduction of the adjustment problem used a momentum forcing to represent a sudden deposition of horizontal momentum into an infinite strip of the ocean by a surface wind stress. The Coriolis force associated with this flow would initially not be in balance with the pressure field and an adjustment would ensue. The original reduced-gravity shallow-water problem has been thoroughly examined [ Cahn (1945) ; Mihaljan (1963) ; see Blumen (1972) for a review

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