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Charles D. Koven, William J. Riley, and Alex Stern

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5). The CMIP5 project included a large number of simulation experiments, including testing model response to a range of forcings, decadal predictability experiments, control scenarios, and paleoclimate experiments. To evaluate the high-latitude thermal predictions of the models, we analyze three representative concentration pathway (RCP) future warming scenarios, RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5, which correspond to 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 W m −2

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Jörg Schwinger, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, Laurent Bopp, James R. Christian, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Chris D. Jones, David Salas-Mélia, Joachim Segschneider, Roland Séférian, and Ian Totterdell

establish a radiative forcing that leads to surface warming ( Doutriaux-Boucher et al. 2009 ). We call the warming due to this mechanism “CO 2 indirect warming” in the following text. Owing to the absence of CO 2 indirect warming in the RAD experiment, the surface climate in these simulations is slightly cooler than in the COU simulations, even though the same CO 2 forcing is applied in the models’ radiation schemes. We investigate the impact of the CO 2 indirect warming on the CMIP5 simulations in

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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

time scales: first, we analyze the long-term trend, which provides information on the model capability to simulate the temporal evolution over the twentieth century given greenhouse gas (GHG) and aerosol radiative forcing. Second, we analyze the interannual variability (IAV) of physical variables as a constraint on the model capability to simulate realistic climate patterns that influence both ocean and continental carbon fluxes ( Rayner et al. 2008 ). Third, we evaluate the modeled seasonal cycle

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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

and dynamic change of plant coverage. We focus on two suites of CMIP5 experiments—concentration-driven historical and representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). The former is also referred to as the twentieth-century simulations from the mid-nineteenth century to near present and is suitable for comparison with observations. The RCP4.5 experiment provides a future projection of climate from 2006 to 2100 based on a mitigation or stabilization scenario in which the total radiative forcing is

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

radiative forcing of all direct and indirect agents reaches 8.5 W m −2 near 2100 ( http://www.pik-potsdam.de/~mmalte/rcps/ ). We use results from eight climate modeling groups selected because, as of May 2012, they offered the only ESMs that provided surface water p CO 2 output for historical and RCP 8.5 experiments. The eight climate modeling groups are 1) the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model, version 1.1 (BCC_CSM1.1; Wu et al. 2013 ); 2) the second generation Canadian Earth System Model

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