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Yaling Liu, Dongdong Chen, Soukayna Mouatadid, Xiaoliang Lu, Min Chen, Yu Cheng, Zhenghui Xie, Binghao Jia, Huan Wu, and Pierre Gentine

interference of dense plant canopy and limitations in the depth of detection within the soil column ( Entekhabi et al. 2014 ), as well as sensor limitations (especially before the use of L-band radiometers). Likewise, the fidelity of LSM simulations may be undermined by model errors (e.g., model structure error, model parameter error), forcing data uncertainties and limited usage of ground-based observations for model calibration and validation ( Xia et al. 2014 ). Thus, efforts that aim to improve large

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Chul-Su Shin, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Bohua Huang, Subhadeep Halder, and Arun Kumar

Fig. 6 ). In general, relatively larger year-by-year variations of soil moisture inconsistencies between the two land initial states seem to be related to the melting of snowpack in the extratropics of the winter Hemisphere and in mountainous areas such as the Himalayas and Andes (right panels of Fig. 6 ). Inconsistencies in soil moisture and snow cover are primarily driven by the precipitation forcing in the two land surface analyses, but the other differences in soil and vegetation classes and

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