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Kirstin Dow

of Climate Change” ( National Research Council 2010 ) highlights the need to take a risk management approach to adaptation. The “Progress Report of the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force” ( White House Council on Environmental Quality 2010 ) states as a guiding principle that priority be placed on protecting the most vulnerable people as well as places and infrastructure. To take these recommendations seriously and act wisely requires learning more about who and what is vulnerable

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Xianhua Wu, Lei Zhou, Ji Guo, and Hui Liu

’s coastal areas, led to 26 fatalities, and resulted in a direct economic loss of 13.77 billion RMB. 2 With global warming, the generation frequency and intensity of typhoons will be further strengthened ( Qin 2008 ; Qin and Luo 2008 ), which indicates that the effects of natural disasters on China will become more numerous and more severe. China boasts the richest labor resources in the world. 3 These rich labor resources have been the primary driving force of China’s fast economic growth over the

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Roberta Balstad

report. These attacks on the IPCC, which have been widely reported and discussed, have succeeded in calling into question the overall findings of this 20-year effort to summarize scientific research on climate change for policy makers and the public. In another arena, opponents of evolution in the United States are taking legal action to force public schools to teach that climate change, like evolution, is only a theory proposed by scientists and that contrary theories (largely posed by nonscientists

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Roberta Balstad

argued that the audience of policy makers is found at many levels of government and that outside the narrow circle of national policy makers there are many who are paying attention to the IPCC. In addition, in a democracy, all voters are, to some limited extent, policy makers by forcing their leaders to pay attention to issues of concern. In that respect, the audience for the policy makers’ summary is extremely broad and the IPCC is right to give precedence to publishing its policy makers’ summaries

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Johnathan P. Kirk and Gordon A. Cromley

the conflict, the French continually tried to force the Viet Minh forces into a massive battle similar to those in World War II. When it happened at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, despite the French’s technological advantages, the Viet Minh forces were able to defeat the French in a pitched battle and force France to negotiate a settlement to the conflict. As in other armed conflicts (e.g., Winters et al. 1998 ; Keller 2009 ), weather and climate played an important role in the operational tempo of the

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Hugo M. A. M. Ricketts, and Dragoş Ene

. Its blast overturns anything that lies in its path, and its circular motion whirls away and carries off by force anything it meets ( Aristotle 1952 , Meteorologica , 371a9–15). This description is, to a certain extent, similar to the modern definition of a tornado, which the American Meteorological Society (2019a ) defines as a rotating column of air, in contact with the surface, pendant from a cumuliform cloud (“spiral sinks to the Earth”) and often visible as a funnel cloud (“carries with it

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Gerard Roe

2008 ). However, since these upper bound temperatures would take many centuries to materialize, it is the transient climate response that has far greater relevance for policy makers. Very roughly, for any given pathway of future radiative forcing the global mean temperature response has about a factor of 2 uncertainty at one standard deviation (1σ), and a factor of 3 uncertainty at 2σ. For example, continued development with a reliance on fossil fuels is projected to lead to 3°–6°C warming by

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Roberta Balstad

are altered over time. Natural disasters—be they earthquakes or extreme weather events—often provoke socioeconomic evolution and change in the years following the event. Unanticipated disasters force governments and societies to respond to unique circumstances and give political and economic leaders the opportunity to initiate changes that might not be accepted by the public under ordinary circumstances. In sum, it will take time before we can understand some of the long-term interactions of

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K. Kvale, K. Zickfeld, T. Bruckner, K. J. Meissner, K. Tanaka, and A. J. Weaver

the respective impulse response functions, which are the measured temporal response of a state variable calculated from the perturbation of the control run of a more complex model ( Hooss et al. 2001 ; Joos et al. 1996 ). Parameterizations of atmospheric chemistry involve direct radiative forcing agents (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 , 29 species of halocarbons, tropospheric and stratospheric O 3 , and stratospheric water vapor) and indirect radiative forcing agents (OH, NO x , CO, and VOC) ( Joos et

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John H. Sorensen, Michael K. Lindell, Earl J. Baker, and William P. Lehman

correlations ( Huang et al. 2016 ). Although this model is simple and straightforward, its application is complex because many hurricanes have a large impact area that could be devastated by extreme storm conditions. On average, a hurricane’s diameter of hurricane-force wind is just over 90 km, but some storms have hurricane-force wind fields that extend over 230 km of coastline ( Kimball and Mulekar 2004 ). The problem posed by a large impact area is compounded by uncertainty about the hurricane’s track

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