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Hyo-Seok Park, Sukyoung Lee, Seok-Woo Son, Steven B. Feldstein, and Yu Kosaka

is the same sea ice model used in CM2.1. The SIS is a dynamical model with three vertical layers, one for snow and two for sea ice, and five ice thickness categories. In this study, we analyze a transient twentieth- to twenty-first-century simulation forced by historical and representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) forcing. Here, we examine the first ensemble member (r1). For the model output, we take advantage of the availability of the data over a longer time period: from the year 1990

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Kate Snow, Andrew McC. Hogg, Bernadette M. Sloyan, and Stephanie M. Downes

; Martin et al. 2015 ), which may drive systemwide changes (e.g., Seidov et al. 2001 ). Despite the many studies undertaken investigating AABW sensitivity to forcing, a complete understanding of the role AABW plays in the global climate system remains uncertain. Previous modeling studies investigating the sensitivity of AABW to freshwater fluxes focus on a uniformly distributed surface freshwater flux over the Southern Ocean, simulating either changes in precipitation, ice-melt, or ice-sheet runoff

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

associated Rossby wave trains influence the southern annular mode (SAM) and surface temperature around the AP and West Antarctica ( Ding et al. 2011 , 2012 ; Ding and Steig 2013 ; Schneider et al. 2012a , b ; Clem and Fogt 2013 , 2015 ; Clem and Renwick 2015 ; Yu et al. 2015 ). The tropical forcing that influences the high latitudes has been also found in the equatorial Atlantic ( Li et al. 2014 ; Simpkins et al. 2014 ) and Indian Ocean ( Nuncio and Yuan 2015 ). In addition to the connective

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

specified for the CCSM4_SOM. Details of the Qflux and MLD specification are provided in section 2d . The final configuration of CCSM4 used in this study is one in which only the atmosphere, land, and thermodynamic sea ice model components are active: SST and sea ice (concentration and thickness) are prescribed as monthly climatologies derived from the CCSM4_SOM simulations. Details of the SST and sea ice forcing for these simulations are provided in section 2e . c. Coupled full-depth ocean model

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Changhyun Yoo, Sungsu Park, Daehyun Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Hye-Mi Kim

the extratropical extreme warm and cold events during boreal winter are associated with wave responses to tropical MJO forcing. Understanding the MJO and its teleconnection is therefore crucial for an accurate forecast of extratropical weather and climate including for North America, especially for the 2–4-week range. Despite the importance of MJO teleconnection, realistic representation of the MJO has been a longstanding challenge for global climate models ( Slingo et al. 1996 ; Lin et al. 2006

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

1. Introduction The Northern Hemispheric climatological stationary wave is a primarily low zonal wavenumber feature in the flow that is likely the result of a complex interplay between thermal and orographic forcing in both the tropics and extratropics (e.g., Held et al. 2002 ). Recent studies have shown that important insights about the dynamics of the Northern Hemispheric circulation can be gleaned by investigating the role of transient eddy interference with the climatological stationary

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Bradley P. Goodwin, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Aaron B. Wilson, Stacy E. Porter, and M. Roxana Sierra-Hernandez

with the strengthening of the circumpolar westerly winds primarily driven by anthropogenic forcing ( Marshall et al. 2006 ). Enhanced advection of warmer maritime air masses over the orographic barrier of the AP and the resulting foehn winds warm the cooler continental climate on the east side ( Orr et al. 2004 ; Marshall et al. 2006 ). Disintegration of ice shelves has progressed southward ( Scambos et al. 2004 ) from the northern tip as predicted by Mercer (1978) to occur in response to the

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Kyle R. Clem and James A. Renwick

. Further, despite Clem and Fogt (2015) finding separate forcing mechanisms for the decreasing pressures in the Ross Sea and the increasing pressures in the southwestern South Atlantic, the relationships were based solely on climate indices (i.e., the PDO index and the SOI, respectively), and a physical relationship was not established. This study builds upon the work of Clem and Fogt (2015) and Schneider et al. (2012) by investigating on a month-by-month basis the physical changes that have

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Bradford S. Barrett, Gina R. Henderson, and Joshua S. Werling

to the mean flow . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 2007 – 2026 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0254.1 . Bao , M. , and D. L. Hartmann , 2014 : The response to MJO-like forcing in a nonlinear shallow-water model . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 41 , 1322 – 1328 , doi: 10.1002/2013GL057683 . Barlow , M. , 2012 : Africa and west Asia. Intraseasonal Variability in the Atmosphere-Ocean Climate System, 2nd ed. W. K. M. Lau and D. E. Waliser, Eds., Springer, 477–495 . Barrett , B. S. , and V. Gensini , 2013

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M. Nuncio and Xiaojun Yuan

records, about 25 IOD events occurred when the Pacific was in neutral state ( Meyers et al. 2007 ). These studies show that the IOD exists physically and sometimes independently from ENSO. It could generate its unique tropical forcing to extratropical regions. Fig . 1. First three modes of singular value decomposition of SST and sea ice concentration anomalies, showing the spatial patterns of (left) SST and (right) sea ice for modes (a),(b) 1, (c),(d) 2, and (e),(f) 3 (see section 3 for details

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