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J. Brent Roberts, Franklin R. Robertson, Carol A. Clayson, and Michael G. Bosilovich

Administration (NASA) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA; Rienecker et al. 2011 ). As with other reanalyses, surface fluxes in MERRA are the result of parameterized physics representing complicated physical processes of molecular and turbulent diffusion, boundary layer structure, and dynamical processes. Forcing these physical processes through the assimilation of observed state variables of moisture, heat, and momentum yields internally consistent estimates of turbulent

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Michele M. Rienecker, Max J. Suarez, Ronald Gelaro, Ricardo Todling, Julio Bacmeister, Emily Liu, Michael G. Bosilovich, Siegfried D. Schubert, Lawrence Takacs, Gi-Kong Kim, Stephen Bloom, Junye Chen, Douglas Collins, Austin Conaty, Arlindo da Silva, Wei Gu, Joanna Joiner, Randal D. Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Andrea Molod, Tommy Owens, Steven Pawson, Philip Pegion, Christopher R. Redder, Rolf Reichle, Franklin R. Robertson, Albert G. Ruddick, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Jack Woollen

some insights into the system’s performance. Other papers in the series analyze various aspects of the scientific quality of MERRA. For example, Bosilovich et al. (2011) evaluate MERRA from an energy and water budget perspective; Robertson et al. (2011) analyze the effects of the changing observing system on MERRA’s energy and water fluxes; Schubert et al. (2011) highlight the usefulness of MERRA for characterizing the nature and forcing of short-term climate extremes, such as heat waves and

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Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Rolf H. Reichle, and Kyle C. McDonald

1. Introduction Errors in surface meteorological forcing data account for a significant portion of the uncertainty in ecosystem and hydrologic model simulations, particularly in regions of the globe with sparse surface observation networks ( Zhao et al. 2006 ; Mu et al. 2009 ; Zhang et al. 2009 ). These modeling efforts commonly utilize surface meteorological drivers obtained from satellite remote sensing, global climate model outputs, or hybrid products (e.g., global atmospheric data

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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, and Siegfried D. Schubert

nonprecipitating environment so that the moisture is not lost on the way, and 3) an upper-level forcing combined with local orography or other factors, producing the trigger that releases a large fraction of the moisture as precipitation into a relatively small time and over an area much smaller than the originating source of moisture. These elements are discussed in detail in Turato et al. (2004) with the aid of water vapor back trajectories and synoptic analyses, showing a clear extratropical origin for a

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Tiffany A. Shaw, Judith Perlwitz, Nili Harnik, Paul A. Newman, and Steven Pawson

with the observed delay in vortex breakup since 1979, which has been attributed to ozone depletion ( Langematz et al. 2003 ; Haigh and Roscoe 2009 ). However, the changes in downward wave coupling could not be directly attributed to ozone changes because individual forcings like sea surface temperature variability, greenhouse gas changes, and ozone changes cannot be separated in reanalysis data. Here we investigate the impact of ozone changes on downward wave coupling in the Southern Hemisphere

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Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Xubin Zeng, Michael Bosilovich, and Chung-Lin Shie

). Another shortcoming of the satellite-derived products is that they do not generally provide radiative fluxes, which are also needed to study the surface energy budget or to force an OGCM, whereas they are generally not provided in the satellite-derived products [HOAPS does provide the net longwave (LW) flux but not the net shortwave (SW) flux]. Table 4 presents the mean difference in surface downward LW and SW radiative fluxes between the reanalysis values and ship observations from all of the

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