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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

moist tropical air mass to the north of the line and dry, warm air, which moves leeward of the Andes slopes in a zone of prevailing westerly flow. The regional circulation that leads to this airmass contrast is linked to the characteristics of the topography. North of 35°S the Andes block the low-level flow, forcing a mainly meridional displacement of air masses. In particular, the channeling of warm, moist air masses from low latitudes leads to the formation of the South American low-level jet

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Paola V. Salio

northwesterly flow pattern aloft across the tracking domain ( Fig. 12b ), whereas MCS events display a more westerly component across the tracking domain ( Fig. 12a ). MUN events also tend to have a slightly more amplified upper-level trough off the west coast of South America, potentially resulting in greater quasigeostrophic (QG) forcing for synoptic-scale ascent or supporting frontal intrusions in some events, favoring more widespread CI. The largest differences in the upper-level patterns exist between

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Rachel Gutierrez, Joshua S. Soderholm, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paula Maldonado, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Kevin A. Bowley, Milagros Alvarez Imaz, and Paola Salio

force, as it had penetrated 2–3 cm into the ground when she found it. The photographs from shortly after it was retrieved ( Figs. 8a,b ) show a rather round stone with scalloped lobes (e.g., Knight and Knight 1970 ) covering much of the surface, and no large icicle lobes. This implies no preferred orientation direction in its final growth layer, presumably owing to random tumbling during its descent. She recounted that many of the stones had similar roundish shapes, with clear outsides and milky

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