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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

1. Introduction Numerical ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) consist of a set of discretized partial differential equations for a set of prognostic variables (the numerical ocean state ), which are solved subject to initial conditions and boundary conditions (lateral and surface boundary conditions, surface forcing); the solution also depends on a number of model parameters (e.g., diffusivity and viscosity parameters). These quantities are referred to as independent parameters, or

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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

with the wind than the northern time series. The BP difference time series lagged the wind by approximately 9.5 days, while the southern pressure lagged wind by 5.5 days (all approximately monthly averaged). A simple analytical model whereby momentum input by the wind is removed by some dissipative force that increases linearly with total current momentum, with the constant an inverse time scale, and realistic values of wind stress and transport (1 dyn cm −2 and 124 Sv), yields a characteristic

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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

1. Introduction For geophysical flows of sufficient spatial scale, the meridional gradient of planetary vorticity (the β effect) provides a restoring force that helps to organize the flow into persistent, narrow zonal jets ( Rhines 1975 ). Well-known examples include the jets on Jupiter and the outer planets and the jet streams in the earth’s atmosphere. Oceanic flows also fall in a parameter range conducive to the formation of zonal jets, although the presence of land boundaries has been

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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

methods The dataset used in this analysis was created using the Tasmanian Partnership for Advanced Computing (TPAC) ⅛° ocean model with constant wintertime forcing. This is a primitive equation, ocean-only general circulation model based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory’s Modular Ocean Model (MOM), version 3.0. The model domain extends from 80°S to 80°N with a ⅛° resolution in both horizontal directions, and has 24 depth levels with partial bottom cells to produce realistic bottom

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Claudia Pasquero and Eli Tziperman

. This creates a stronger surface temperature variability that triggers strong convection during the winter months and allows testing the parameterizations in both stable and unstable surface forcing conditions. Convection is parameterized as described in section 2: at every time step a check for statistical instability is performed between each two adjacent levels, and the convection scheme is applied if P conv is larger than the threshold P conv = 0.01. The model is run for 1 yr, with k υ = 1

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Peter Huybers, Geoffrey Gebbie, and Olivier Marchal

the upper ocean where cross-basin density changes are larger (see Lynch-Stieglitz 2001 ) but where surface buoyancy and wind stress forcings enter as important unknowns. Next, the Δ 14 C observations are considered. When Δ 14 C alone is used to constrain the model, an observational accuracy of ±0.1‰ is required to reject H 2× . The more rapid southerly transport required by H 2× leaves less time for radioactive decay, tending to decrease the north–south gradients in Δ 14 C. But such an increase

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