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Gualtiero Badin, Amit Tandon, and Amala Mahadevan

1. Introduction In the oceanic mixed layer (ML), atmospheric forcing, ocean dynamics, and their interplay act to leave the surface waters well mixed. While the ML waters are mixed in the vertical, lateral gradients in temperature and salinity are a common feature. Processes responsible for the creation of lateral gradients in temperature and salinity in the open ocean include nonhomogeneous heat and freshwater fluxes, wind mixing associated with the passage of a storm, and ocean convection

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Daniel Mukiibi, Gualtiero Badin, and Nuno Serra

can be explained, considering that close to the sea surface the flow is more energetic and is responsible for a stronger entanglement of the FTLEs, which results in a larger variance of FTLEs at smaller scales. At depth, FTLEs are less entangled, and the spectra display a smaller variance at small scales. It should be noted that the comparison between the results of this study and the results found from observations or from numerical simulations with realistic geometry and forcing is, however

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Andrey Y. Shcherbina, Miles A. Sundermeyer, Eric Kunze, Eric D’Asaro, Gualtiero Badin, Daniel Birch, Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Jörn Callies, Brandy T. Kuebel Cervantes, Mariona Claret, Brian Concannon, Jeffrey Early, Raffaele Ferrari, Louis Goodman, Ramsey R. Harcourt, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, M.-Pascale Lelong, Murray D. Levine, Ren-Chieh Lien, Amala Mahadevan, James C. McWilliams, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Sonaljit Mukherjee, Jonathan D. Nash, Tamay Özgökmen, Stephen D. Pierce, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Roger M. Samelson, Thomas B. Sanford, R. Kipp Shearman, Eric D. Skyllingstad, K. Shafer Smith, Amit Tandon, John R. Taylor, Eugene A. Terray, Leif N. Thomas, and James R. Ledwell

dynamical processes have been proposed to explain this mesoscale–submesoscale transition, including spontaneous instability of deep mixed layers, ageostrophic instability, frontogenesis, and direct wind forcing at mesoscale fronts ( Boccaletti et al. 2007 ; Thomas et al. 2008 ). Numerical simulations suggest that non-quasigeostrophic baroclinic mixed layer instabilities can penetrate into the thermocline, leading to lateral stirring of tracers below the mixed layer ( Badin et al. 2011 ). It appears

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Leif N. Thomas and Callum J. Shakespeare

) directions; respectively, P as the pressure, ρ as the density, T as the temperature, S as the salinity, and f as the (constant) Coriolis parameter. The variables are decomposed into background and perturbation components: where denotes a background field. The mean pressure is ( ρ 0 is a reference density and ; g is the acceleration due to gravity) and ensures a force balance for the background strain flow involving the advection of momentum and the Coriolis and pressure gradient

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Callum J. Shakespeare and Leif N. Thomas

(tensors). In the present model, only a spatially uniform horizontal viscosity ν h and diffusivity κ h are applied. With only horizontal diffusivity and the simplified equation of state [ (1) ], it may be shown from (7) that the density evolves as The background flow forces the system through the additional advection terms (e.g., ) in (7) that are added as external forcing terms in the numerical model. In the absence of cabbeling [ c = 0 in (1) ], temperature and salinity are advected

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Eric Kunze and Miles A. Sundermeyer

. Baker and Gibson (1987) reported σ ln ε or σ ln χ ranging from 1.30 to 2.53 in seven off-equatorial microstructure measurement datasets. We caution that ocean turbulence is unlikely to be perfectly lognormal because of the nonstationarity of the background environment and forcing, both failing to satisfy underlying homogeneity assumptions in statistical theories of turbulence ( Davis 1996 ); however, insufficient information is available to determine a robust observationally based PDF. Since

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