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Paolo Fiorucci, Francesco Gaetani, Antonio Lanorte, and Rosa Lasaponara

) independently on the causes of ignition. The estimation of fire danger provides a valuable support for the designing of strategies related to the use and the distribution of the available fire fighting resources, which can prevent or at least minimize fire effects. The most widely used fire danger forecasting systems are the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS; Stocks et al. 1989 ; Alexander et al. 1996 ; Van Nest and Alexander 1999 ; Lee et al. 2002 ) and the United States’ National Fire

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

, which means that it is not assimilated, but entirely determined by the model 6-h forecasts ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Janowiak et al. ( Janowiak et al. 1998 ), Roads and Betts ( Roads and Betts 2000 ), and Roads and Chen ( Roads and Chen 2000 ) showed that although large-scale patterns of precipitation fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) global reanalysis project [R-1 ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ); R-2 ( Kanamitsu et al. 2002

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Thomas Stanley, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, George J. Huffman, and Robert F. Adler

. Satellite precipitation data are used in many applications such as flood monitoring, crop forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and disease tracking ( Kucera et al. 2013 ; Kirschbaum et al. 2017 ). These user communities have relied upon TMPA data, and several workshops have highlighted the need for long precipitation records ( Ward et al. 2015 ; Ward and Kirschbaum 2014 ). While the GPM mission plans to create a consistent record of precipitation available from 1998 to the present using TRMM

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R. Tokmakian

large decrease in the fish catch. The last half of the record appears to be more strongly correlated with the atmospheric conditions than the first half. If these gyre changes to the ocean's heat content portend a trend in the fish catch in the northeastern Pacific, then monitoring the SSH low-frequency signal could be useful. This paper discusses how an empirical technique of combining SSH anomaly measurements and SST measurements can be used to monitor the low-frequency change of heat content in

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Weile Wang, Bruce T. Anderson, Nathan Phillips, Robert K. Kaufmann, Christopher Potter, and Ranga B. Myneni

as other variables); however, we want to ensure that the explanatory power is contributed by vegetation alone. In this sense, the conventional technique of lagged-correlation analysis cannot fully answer the question posed here. Instead, this paper uses another methodology, namely, Granger causality ( Granger 1969 ; 1980 ). The notion of Granger causality was developed in studies of economic time series; nevertheless, because the methodology has mathematical and physical foundations, it also has

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Emmanuel M. Attua and Joshua B. Fisher

better understand and address the complex land-use system of the area and develop improved land-use management strategies that could better balance urban expansion and ecological conservation. This will help forestall ecological and socioeconomic challenges commonly associated with unplanned urban land development, before they could attain overwhelming proportions ( López et al. 2001 ). Urban land-cover change and modeling techniques The study of land-cover change is an important topic

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Anthony E. Akpan, Mahesh Narayanan, and T. Harinarayana

1. Introduction The discovery of the artificial neural network (ANN) technology from a confluence of different scientific and nonscientific disciplines has given birth to a powerful research tool with applications cutting across disciplines. In the geoscience world, the ANN technique has enjoyed enhanced patronage in generating precise information on many geoscientific problems that border on control, prediction, inversion, classification, pattern recognition, and data compression, which were

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Mohammad H. Mokhtari, Ibrahim Busu, Hossein Mokhtari, Gholamreza Zahedi, Leila Sheikhattar, and Mohammad A. Movahed

surface energy balance modeling ( ERSDAC 2010 ). Moreover, the current available ASTER-based total shortwave albedo model, which requires shortwave infrared bands of 5, 6, 8, and 9 in addition to bands 1 and 3 of the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) part, is not applicable to the data acquired after April 2008. Over the past decades, broad attention has been paid to certain flexible computational techniques such as multivariate analysis and data mining in order to develop complex biophysical modeling

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A. H. M. Siddique-E-Akbor, Faisal Hossain, Safat Sikder, C. K. Shum, Steven Tseng, Yuchan Yi, F. J. Turk, and Ashutosh Limaye

fundamentally intractable issues of hydropolitics. The modeling technique should have a significant impact on the economics and well-being for the 630 million inhabitants in the region. Continuing improvement of hydrologic modeling and forecasting efforts in the region is therefore necessary. Acknowledgments Support for this study was provided by the NASA SERVIR program (NNX12AM85AG). Partial support from the Ivanhoe Foundation (to Safat Sikder) is acknowledged. The Ohio State University (OSU) component of

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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

Grell deep convective parameterization ( Grell et al. 1994 ), the Medium-Range Forecasting (MRF) planetary boundary layer scheme ( Hong and Pan 1996 ), and the Reisner explicit cloud microphysics parameterization ( Reisner et al. 1998 ). This latter parameterization predicts the mixing ratio of cloud water and ice crystals as well as the rain and snow water mixing ratios. The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997 ) is chosen for longwave radiation, and the delta

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