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Yukari N. Takayabu, George N. Kiladis, and Victor Magaña

of tropical waves for scale interactions. One of the major advances of GATE was its field observations that contributed to the understanding of the structure and aggregation of mesoscale systems over the eastern tropical Atlantic ( Gamache and Houze 1985 ; Zipser 1977 ; Houze and Betts 1981 ). Another major contribution from Michio’s work during GATE was the analysis of the mass flux of convection associated with African easterly waves (AEWs). Utilizing the apparent heat source Q 1 and

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

massive amount of progress in the field, the materials covered in the review are inevitably subjective and eclectic. Weather and climate are governed by the processes of coupled ocean–atmosphere interaction. Ocean is the major reservoir of water, heat, and greenhouse gases on Earth. For a comprehensive account of the history of the understanding of ocean circulation, the reader is referred to the chapter by Wunsch and Ferrari (2019 , in this volume). On global scales, the ocean has absorbed more than

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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

presenting unique communication complications. Its first site installed at Manus Island in October 1996 included the core instrumentation found at the SGP Central Facility site, but unlike SGP collection sites in Oklahoma and Kansas, the extremely limited bandwidth of the network connection between Manus and ARM’s Data Management Facility (DMF) led to delayed data delivery in the early years. During this period, data examination by site scientists occurred in two stages. The first stage identified

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Margaret A. LeMone, Wayne M. Angevine, Christopher S. Bretherton, Fei Chen, Jimy Dudhia, Evgeni Fedorovich, Kristina B. Katsaros, Donald H. Lenschow, Larry Mahrt, Edward G. Patton, Jielun Sun, Michael Tjernström, and Jeffrey Weil

significant fluxes of momentum, heat, or matter are carried by turbulent motions on a scale of the order of the depth of the boundary layer or less” ( Garratt 1992 , p. 1). “lowest kilometer” or “lowest portion of the atmosphere, which intensively exchanges heat as well as mass and momentum with the earth’s surface” ( Sorbjan 1989 , p. 1). The time scales in these definitions are fundamental, but vary by an order of magnitude, a function of context and application. On the short end, it takes minutes for

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Kerry Emanuel

the middle of the nineteenth century that cyclones in general were powered by latent heat release in a conditionally unstable atmosphere, a belief that persists even today. 2 The first century of AMS’s existence saw much progress in measuring, understanding, and forecasting tropical cyclones. This chapter attempts to document that progress and to set it in the context of important developments in the broad field of meteorology. Indeed, the magnitude and breadth of that progress is so large as to

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Akio Arakawa, Joon-Hee Jung, and Chien-Ming Wu

. First, Q 1 and Q 2 are obtained as the residuals in the large-scale budget equations. The terminologies “apparent heat source” and “apparent moisture sink” for these quantities are then introduced, recognizing that they are different from the true heat source and moisture sink taking place locally. These differences are due to the effects of eddies smaller than the size of the observation network. Their results obtained from the 1956 Marshall Islands data are shown in Fig. 16-2 . Here, Q R

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

and supported the tuning of dynamical models of ENSO, leading to the first successful El Niño prediction for 1986/87 ( Cane et al. 1986 ). Through 1980–90, interest grew to understand the global ocean circulation, its transport of heat, and its interaction with the atmosphere. A nearly global hydrographic survey was designed, containing many control volumes for inverse analyses, and serving as the foundation for data-assimilating numerical models. It was impractical to observe and invert the

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Baode Chen, Wen-wen Tung, and Michio Yanai

. Compared with Figs. 8-12a–c , the terms and bear a remarkable resemblance to each other with regard to the distributions and the magnitudes, indicating that the latent-heating release and transport of heat in deep convection is a primary source of PAPE, and is almost solely converted into PKE through the correlation of . This particular PKE generation and conversion were first noted in the Marshall Island area by Nitta (1970 , 1972) , and confirmed by Wallace (1971) and Kung and Merritt

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

winds. As a combination of these conditions, the low-level cyclonic circulation is particularly active during winter and is a prominent feature of the boreal winter climatology ( Johnson and Houze 1987 , see their Fig. 10.2). Although the circulation may not be completely closed on the east side over the island, it is often referred to as the Borneo vortex and is often associated with deep convection and intense latent heat release ( Cheang 1977 ; Lau and Chang 1987 ; Johnson and Houze 1987

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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

”). It is an unhappy fact that none of the hypotheses proved demonstrable, and thus oceanic flows were only known relative to unknown velocities at arbitrary depths. Estimated transports of fluid and their important properties such as heat could easily be dominated by even comparatively small, correct, values of u 0 and υ 0 . Physical oceanography was plagued by this seemingly trivial issue for about 70 years. It was only solved in recent years through mathematical inverse methods and by

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