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-surface temperature from satellite high resolution infrared window radiation measurements. Mon. Wea. Rev., 98, 604-611.Warnecke, G., L. J. Allison, L. McMillin and K. H. Szekielda, 1971: Remote sensing of ocean currents and sea surface tem perature changes derived from the Nimbus II satellite. J. 2Phys. Oceanogr., 1, 45-60.TOS Project Report, 1970: Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, 28 pp. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.).

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Harry G. Stumpf

fluxes of momentum, moisture and sensible heat over the ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 901-917.Reed, R. K., and D. Halpern, 1974a: Radiation measurements off the Oregon coast (July-August 1973). CUEA Data Rept. 13, University of Washington, Seattle. , and ---, 1974b: Insolation and net long-wave radiation off the Oregon coast. J. Geophys. Res. (in press).Sverdrup, H. U., and R. H. Fleming, 1941: The waters off the coast of southern California (March to July, 1937)..Bull. Sdripps Inst

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James R. McGrath and M. F. M. Osborne

. Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math., 4, p. 42.McDowell, R. S., and C. D. McCutcheon, 1971: The Thoreau Reynolds ridge, a lost and found phenomena. Science, 172, p. 973.McGrath, J. R., 1971: An approximate linear theory treating heat and mass transfer through the laminar boundary layers at a sea surface disturbed by wave motion. Ph.D. dissertation, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.Osborne, M. F. M., 1964: The interpretation of infrared radiation from the sea in terms of its

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Randy A. Doblar and Robert E. Cheney

). It has been estimated that 5-8 rings form eachyear (Fuglister, 1972) and as many as 10 have beenobserved to exist at one time (Cheney, 1976). Although it has been almost three decades since theformation process was first documented (Fuglister andWorthington, 1951), Observations of the entire sequence from initial development of the meander tosubsequent separation are rare. In February 1977 infrared imagery from the NOAA-$satellite provided an unusually clear view of a newlyforming cold core

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A. Birol Kara, Harley E. Hurlburt, Peter A. Rochford, and James J. O'Brien

parameterized as the sum of the downward surface solar irradiance ( Q SOL ), upward longwave radiation ( Q LW ), and the downward latent and sensible heat fluxes ( Q L and Q S , respectively). The solar irradiance at the ocean surface ranges in wavelength from about 300 to 2800 nm and is composed of three general regions: the ultraviolet (UV) below 400 nm, the visible at 400–700 nm, and the infrared (IR) above 700 nm. The light available for photosynthesis by photoplankton is the PAR and is defined as the

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Henry W. Brandli, Donald L. Reinke, and Lloyd E. Irvin

the ground truth temperature data. REFERENCESChurch, James F., and Paul F. Twitchell, 1972: Atmospheric corrections for airborne radiation thermometers. AFCRL-72 0277, Hanscom AFB, Mass.Dickinson, L. G., S. E. Boselly and W. S. Bergman, 1974: Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Users Guide. AWS-TR-250.La Violette, P. E., L. Stuart, Jr., and C. Vermillion, 1975: Use of APT satellite infrared data in oceanographic survey op erations. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 56

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R. K. Reed and D. Halpern

intothe dynamics of this process and the effects of theprocess in the ecosystems. During the second experiment off Oregon in summer 1973, we placed additionalemphasis on the heat exchange occurring in the upperocean. Seven 24 h anchor stations were occupied bythe NOAA ship Oceanographer near an oceanographicmeteorological buoy (NOAA's buoy B), about 13 kmoff the coast in a water depth of 103 m. Hourly STDcasts were taken (reported by Holbrook and Halpern,1974) and continuous measurements of radiation

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Jack A. C. Kaiser

larger value occurring when the sunwas higher in the sky (21.3- zenith'angle).4. Comparison with a model A purely absorption model of radiative transfer inthe upper ocean (which can only predict D/I) wasconstructed to predict the downwelling irradianceas a function of depth, solar zenith angle andcloud cover. The effect of water vapor on theatmospheric absorption of incoming infrared radiation and the change in sea surface roughness withwind speed were included. Also, the radiance distribution of

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Harry G. Stumpf and P. Krishna Rao

: Satellite detection of upwelling and cold water eddies..Proc. 8th Intern. Syrup. Remote Sensing of En~iromnent, Environ. Res. Inst. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1069-1081.Wyrtki, K., 1964: The thermal structure of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Deut. Hydrogr. Inst., Hamburg, 86 pp.Evolution of Gulf Stream Eddies as Seen in Satellite Infrared Imagery I-hR~ G. Sx~r~te~ A~D P. IOuS~A RAO National Environmental Satellite Service, N OA A, Suilland, Md. 20233 30 September 1914 and 11

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Gary A. Wick, J. Carter Ohlmann, Christopher W. Fairall, and Andrew T. Jessup

earlier model is that much of the radiation assumed to be absorbed rapidly just below the surface is absorbed passing through the moist marine atmosphere before reaching the ocean surface. The wavelengths absorbed most rapidly, thereby contributing to warming within the skin layer, correspond to the near-infrared portion of the spectrum. Significant modifications in the treatment of the water vapor continuum and water vapor absorption in the infrared spectrum has occurred (e.g., Clough et al. 1992

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