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Gerald A. Meehl, Warren M. Washington, Julie M. Arblaster, Aixue Hu, Haiyan Teng, Claudia Tebaldi, Benjamin N. Sanderson, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Andrew Conley, Warren G. Strand, and James B. White III

warming overall and the dominance of Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric ozone recovery and Arctic amplification in the temperature change pattern. The competing effects of the GHG and ozone forcings on the zonal winds result in an equatorward shift (negative anomalies near 60°S, positive values near 40°S) in the SH extratropical jet for RCP2.6 and a poleward shift (positive anomalies near 60°S, negative values near 40°S) for RCP8.5. In the NH the extratropical jet responds to the decreased

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Samuel Levis, Gordon B. Bonan, Erik Kluzek, Peter E. Thornton, Andrew Jones, William J. Sacks, and Christopher J. Kucharik

) , and Kim and Wang (2007) agree that the land surface influence on sensible and latent heat fluxes and climate increases when local to regional atmospheric processes dominate over global phenomena. In midwestern North America this is true in summer when the jet stream weakens and local convective processes dominate over the large-scale circulation ( Allard and Carleton 2010 ). We have not accounted for irrigation in the present study. Irrigation in areas surrounding the Mead site (rainfed locally

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Laura Landrum, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Eugene R. Wahl, Andrew Conley, Peter J. Lawrence, Nan Rosenbloom, and Haiyan Teng

pressure of the Icelandic low and higher pressures near the Azores and Iberian Peninsula. These pressure oscillations affect the locations and strength of the jet streams and storm tracks over the North Atlantic region, with a strong influence on winter weather in Europe and North America ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ; Deser 2000 ; Thompson et al. 2003 ). When the NAO is in its positive phase, winters in northern Europe are warmer and wetter and southern Europe and North Africa are cooler and

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Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, James T. Randerson, Keith Lindsay, Britton B. Stephens, J. Keith Moore, Scott C. Doney, Peter E. Thornton, Natalie M. Mahowald, Forrest M. Hoffman, Colm Sweeney, Pieter P. Tans, Paul O. Wennberg, and Steven C. Wofsy

ocean CO 2 varied considerably as a function of latitude and between the two scenarios. Some of the increased variability may be due to atmospheric dynamics interacting with larger spatial gradients: small interannual shifts in the position of the jet stream, for instance, may change the origin of CO 2 sampled at a given observatory significantly. We propose more in-depth analysis to determine how both atmospheric dynamics and fluxes may change in the future so that monitoring networks can be

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