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Clémentde Boyer Montégut, Jérôme Vialard, S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, Fabien Durand, Christian Ethé, and Gurvan Madec

model southeast of the Findlater (1969) jet axis ( Fig. 2 ). The model therefore seems to enhance the effect of negative Ekman pumping on MLD deepening. Previous studies actually showed that Ekman pumping does not dominate the upper-ocean response in the AS but rather acts as a modulation of wind-driven entrainment in summer and convective overturning in winter (e.g., Lee et al. 2000 ; Fischer et al. 2002 ). In addition, McCreary et al. (2001) also noted the same deep bias for their model in

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J. Stuart Godfrey, Rui-Jin Hu, Andreas Schiller, and R. Fiedler

the surface Ekman–Sverdrup flow. Examination of flow patterns 7 days into each experiment qualitatively confirmed this picture (not shown). Flow patterns should then shoal, as more and more of the baroclinic modes reach Sverdrup equilibrium—until the fixed western boundary transport is shallow and intense enough for nonlinear effects to become important. Figures 4a–c show the horizontal streamfunction after four years, at the end of experiments 1–3, respectively. In all three figures a zonal jet

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Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy, Eric Hackert, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

semiannual Wyrtki jet on the equator with no strong evidence of sustained mixed layer–thermocline interactions or strong equatorial upwelling (see Schott and McCreary 2001 ; Annamalai and Murtugudde 2004 ). Thus, capturing the Indian Ocean SST and heat content variability may be relatively simpler compared to the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, even though the SST variance at all time scales tends to be small and mostly in the range of observational errors, making selecting an array more

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Jean Philippe Duvel and Jérôme Vialard

–Julian oscillation on ocean surface heat fluxes and sea surface temperature. J. Climate , 11 , 1057 – 1072 . Joseph , P. V. , and S. Sijikumar , 2004 : Intraseasonal variability of the low-level jet stream of the Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate , 17 , 1449 – 1458 . Kanamitsu , M. , W. Ebisuzaki , J. Woollen , S-K. Yang , J. J. Hnilo , M. Fiorino , and G. L. Potter , 2002 : NCEP–DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 1631 – 1643 . Kawamura , R

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Gabriel A. Vecchi and Matthew J. Harrison

-Range Weather Forecasts ( ECMWF 1989 ) 12-hourly, 2.5° × 2.5° resolution operational 10-m wind analysis and another using 2000–02 wind data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), made available by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Microwave scatterometry gives us the ability to explore basin-scale modes of vector wind variability in an unprecedented manner. We use NASA/JPL’s QuikSCAT level-3 satellite vector wind product, with each vector

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Annalisa Cherchi, Silvio Gualdi, Swadhin Behera, Jing Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, Toshio Yamagata, and Antonio Navarra

beginning of the monsoon season, winds in the tropical Indian Ocean change direction: a strong southwesterly flow develops at low levels, whereas at upper levels a strong easterly jet is present. Near the surface, wind maxima are in July–August ( Fig. 2a ). In correspondence with the beginning and intensification of the monsoon winds, surface water cools down and a sea surface temperature gradient forms near the coast of Africa ( Fig. 1a ). Lindzen and Nigam (1987) have shown that in the Tropics a

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