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Bryce J. Weinand

United States. The trough was also detectable in the water vapor loop. Associated with this trough was a strong jet of 140 kt (72 m s −1 ) on the east side in the southern United States. The west side of the trough was oriented nearly meridionally from New Mexico to North Dakota with winds generally less than 65 kt (34 m s −1 ). A ridge at the upper levels dominated the western United States. Embedded within the synoptic field, a short-wave trough, defined by a wind shift line, sliced through the

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

60 80 100Wind Speed (knots)20 40 60 80 100Wind Speed (knots)FIGURE 2.-Schematic showing cirrus cloud positions, 200-mb jet stream, and wind profile from Lajes in the Azores.Figure 2 is a schematic showing three positions of thecirrus cloud area and the 1200 Ghrr 200-mb jet-streampcsitions for May 5 and 6. These cloud positions ill~~stratedhere were obtained from (A) ESSA 9 at. 1735 GMT onMay 5, (B) Nimbus I11 at 0318 GMT on May 6, and (C)ESSA 8 at 1206 GMT on May 6. (ATS-3 pictures wereconsulted

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VINCENT J. OLIVER

, composed primarily of cumulusthe underlying warmer waters. The convection that re- congestus and cumulonimbus (A, fig. 1); and closedsults from this process produces large areas of cumuliform cellular, composed primarily of stratocumulus and cumulusFIGURE I.-ESSA-6 APT, Pass 1981, 1908 OMT, Apr. 16, 1968.July 1968 Vincent I. Oliver 471FIGURE 2.-Surface Analysis 1300 GMT, and 200-mb. jet. stream, 1200 GMT, Apr. 16, 1968.(B, fig. 1). The changes from one type of cellular patternto another has been

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MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWPICTURE OF THE MONTH35-This unusually clear TIROS VI1 photograph of thenort.heastern United States (pass 063, frame 3) was takenon June 23, 1963, at 1634 GMT and was received at WallopsStation ria direct readout. Long Island lies just abol-eand to the right of the center-cross fiducial mark.The large band of cloud across the lower part of thepicture is orient'ed approsimately ENE-WSW and isbelieved to hare been associated with the jet stream.It consisted of cirrus and

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PICTURE OF THE MONTH

A jet Stream Cirrus Shield

Carl O. Erickson

260 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW Vo~a~102PICTURE OF THE MONTHA Jet Stream Cirrus Shield CA~Z O. E~ICKSONMeteorological Satellite Laboratory, NF_.SS, NOAA, Washington, IJ. C. 20031 Jet-assodated cirrus is very frequently seen in satellitecloud pictures but setdom as spectacularly as in thisinstance. These photographs (visible and infrared, Figs.1 and 2) were recorded by the Very

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HENRY W. BRANDLI, JOHN W. OLIVER, and RAMON J. ESTU

together.In addition, the location of the subt'ropicd jet is easilyinferred from t,he SR data and was all important in t,hewestward shift of the TLI as the launch of APOLLO 17was delayed. Confirmation of the jet stream speed wasobtained from ARIA aircraft, operating in the area.In addition, the APOLLO 17 astronauts were briefedon the weather at the launch area and the At.lmtic abort]area using the Detachment 11 high-quality, simultaneousSR data prior to liftoff.REFERENCEMyers, Robert F., Sprague

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

southwestward (beyond this picture) to155' E. A large area of cold-air cumulus clouds are movingsoutheastward behind the frontal band. By 2107 Gm onOctober 26, this occluded storm had moved northeast-ward, and the storm center and the cellular cumulusfield remain well defined. A brighter cirrus layer, assoc.iatedwith the jet stream, can be seen crossing the front at(C), figure 2.System B continued to move northward and was locatedsouth of the Aleutian Islands in figure 3. The cellularcumulus immediately

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presence of lower overcast.The other major cloud band, near and roughly parallelto the bottom of the picture, does not correspond to anywell-defined feature on the surface or 500-mb. charts.The band may be associated with a jet stream, but thenecessary upper-level data to verify this conjecture are notimmediately available.The small, irregular whitish patches northwest of thevortex are lakes whose surfaces are partially icecovered.

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it did not carry the shape ofa logarithmic spiral, for few of them do. It was furthernoted that the second spiral band "does not correspondto any well defined feature on the surface or 500-mb.charts." We are, then, faced with the inference that oneof these spirals is a front and the other is not. With thisinference I disagree.It was further suggested that the second band may beassociated with a jet stream. The problem, in this case,is to produce a jet stream with a logarithmic spiralshape

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

across the northwesternUnited States. At this t'ime, the 200-mb. jet stream wasanalyzed to cross the coast near Seattle and follow a path,due east, along 48'N. through Idaho and Montana andthen uortheast,ward into Canada.Upper air solmdings for 1200 GMT at Lander, Wyo.(LND), and Great Falls, Mont. (GTF), accompany the1435 GMT ESSA-2 photograph in figure 1. At this time,low clouds are present near LND and middle and highclouds at, GTF. Little direct,ional wind shear is indicatedat bot#h these stations

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