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David W. Sjostedt, John T. Sigmon, and Stephen J. Colucci

404 WEATHER AND FORECASTING VOLUME5The Carolina Nocturnal Low-Level Jet: Synoptic Climatology and a Case StudyDAVID W. SJOSTEDTl, JOHN T. SIGMON AND STEPHEN J. COLUCCI2Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia(Manuscript received 23 March 1988, in final form 30 April 1990)ABSTRACT The nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), a common phenomenon

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Paloma Borque, Paola Salio, Matilde Nicolini, and Yanina García Skabar

1. Introduction Environments where mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) develop have some common characteristics, including an upper-level short-wave trough, a quasi-stationary frontal zone, and a strong low-level jet (LLJ) ( Maddox 1983 ; Laing and Fritsch 2000 ). Consistently, organized convection in subtropical South America develops essentially under environmental conditions characterized by synoptic-scale forcing associated with a cold front over northern Patagonia, downstream from a

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J. Tenenbaum

320 WEATHER AND FORECASTING VOLUME6Jet Stream Winds: Comparisons of Analyses wit~ lln~ependent Aircraft Data over Southwest Asia J. TENENBAUMState University of New York, Purchase, New York(Manuscript received 18 February 1991, in final form 8 May 1991) We have obtained cruise-level wind data from commercial aircraft, and compared this data with operationaljet

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Stanley F. Rose, Peter V. Hobbs, John D. Locatelli, and Mark T. Stoelinga

1. Introduction Operational forecasts of severe weather often make reference to upper-tropospheric “jet streaks” (i.e., wind maxima) as factors that influence the development of severe weather, including tornadoes. The importance placed on jet streaks in severe weather forecasting arises from theoretical considerations of straight jet streaks ( Namias and Clapp 1949 ), which predict a characteristic middle-tropospheric vertical velocity pattern beneath the quadrants of jet streaks. Based on

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Mark J. Mitchell, Raymond W. Arritt, and Ken Labas

576 WEATHER AND FORECASTING VOLUME 10A Climatology of the Warm Season Great Plains Low-Level Jet Using Wind Profiler Observations MARK J. MITCHELLNational Weather Service, Minneapolis, Minnesota RAYMOND W. ARRITTDepartment of Agronomy, lowa State University, Ames, lowa KEN LABASNational Weather Service, Chicago, Illinois(Manuscript received 2 December

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Andrew K. Laing and Erick Brenstrum

458 VOLUME 11 WEATHER AND FORECASTING Scatterometer Observations of Low-Level Wind Jets over New Zealand Coastal Waters ANDREW K. LAING National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand ERICK BRENSTRUM Meteorological Service of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand (Manuscript received 25 September 1995, in final form 12 August 1996) ABSTRACT Wind data from the European Remote-Sensing Satellite ( ERS-1) scatterometer are used to depict wind

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Gregory J. Hakim and Louis W. Uccellini

26 WEATHER AND FORECASTING VOLUME?Diagnosing Coupled Jet-Streak Circulations for a Northern Plains Snow Band from the Operational Nested~Grid Model GREGORY J. HAKIMState University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York LOUIS W. UCCELLINIMeteorological Operations Division, National Meteorological Center, Camp Springs, Maryland(Manuscript received 21

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David M. Schultz and Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

1. Introduction Extreme winds in extratropical cyclones often occur south of the surface low center (e.g., Lynott and Cramer 1966 ; Neiman et al. 1993 ; Grønås 1995 ; Steenburgh and Mass 1996 ; Nielsen and Sass 2003 ; Von Ahn et al. 2006 ; Chelton et al. 2006 ; Knox et al. 2011 ; Fox et al. 2012 ; Hanafin et al. 2012 ). Studying the United Kingdom's Great Storm of 15–16 October 1987, Browning (2004) coined the term sting jet to refer to one specific type of wind maximum in this

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Louis W. Uccellini and Paul J. Kocin

DECEMBER 1987 LOUIS W. UCCELLINI AND PAUL J. KOCIN 289The Interaction of Jet Streak Circulations during Heavy Snow Events along the East Coast of the United States Louis W. UCCELLINI AND PAUL J. KOCINLaboratory for Atmospheres, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771(Manuscript received 27 May 1987, in final form 6 August 1987)ABSTRACT The interaction of transverse vertical circulations associated with two

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Kelsey M. Malloy and Ben P. Kirtman

States dominates in the north-central and Midwest regions ( Dirmeyer and Kinter 2010 ), and the leading cause is the strengthening of the Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ; Arritt et al. 1997 ; Cook et al. 2008 ; Feng et al. 2016 ; Gimeno et al. 2016 ; Nayak and Villarini 2017 ). The Great Plains LLJ has a diurnal cycle caused by thermal gradient reversals over sloping terrain and frictional decoupling amid a rising boundary layer ( Blackadar 1957 ; Fast and McCorcle 1990 ; Holton 1967 ; Jiang

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