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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

August1962 with near zero precipitation in between. The lowlevel, northward-flowing wind over Kenya had corresponding fluctuations. Although there was some controversy over whether or not the Kenyan winds couldbe used to predict the Indian rainfall, Findlater (1969)argued that these same precipitation changes were inresponse to the changing Somali jet. The fluctuating822 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 1224~ffOIE4O8

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

upper level jet streak and diabatic processes that influence the development of a low-level jet and secondary coastal cyclone. Mort. Wea. Rev.. 115, 2227-2261.Willoughby, H. E., H.-L. Jin, S. J. Lord, and J. M. Piotrowicz, 1984: Hurricane structure and evolution as simulated by an axisym metric, nonhydrostatic numerical model. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1169-1186.Xu, K. M., 1991: The coupling of cumulus convection with large scale processes. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Atmospheric

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David M. Schultz

: The pressure jump line. J. Meteor. , 7 , 21 – 29 . Thompson , W. T. , and R. T. Williams , 1997 : Numerical simulations of maritime frontogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci. , 54 , 314 – 331 . Troup , A. J. , 1956 : An aerological study of the “meridional front” in western Australia. Aust. Meteor. Mag. , 14 , 1 – 22 . Uccellini , L. W. , 1980 : On the role of upper tropospheric jet streaks and leeside cyclogenesis in the development of low-level jets in the Great Plains. Mon. Wea

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David M. Schultz and Philip N. Schumacher

, 118–140. Bluestein, H. B., 1986: Fronts and jet streaks: A theoretical perspective. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173–215. ——, 1993: Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes. Vol. 2, Observations and Theory of Weather Systems. Oxford University Press, 594 pp. Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1996: The heat budget of a midlatitude squall line and implications for

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Paul M. Markowski

Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, Geophys. Monogr., No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 319–352 . Bluestein , H. B. , and A. L. Pazmany , 2000 : Observations of tornadoes and other convective phenomena with a mobile, 3-mm wavelength, Doppler radar. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 81 , 2939 – 2952 . Bluestein , H. B. , and S. G. Gaddy , 2001 : Airborne pseudo-dual-Doppler analysis of a rear-inflow jet and deep convergence zone within a supercell. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129

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Loïk Berre and Gérald Desroziers

and omega balance equations allows for the representation of some effects of the jet dynamics on space and time variations of temperature covariances in particular. Another way to relax the covariance homogeneity assumption is to represent geographical variations of variances while using the homogeneity assumption for correlations. This has been done in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) variational assimilation system, as described in Derber and Bouttier (1999) , by

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Peter Jan van Leeuwen

particles have very low weights (see Fig. 1 , at t = 20). That means that the statistical information in the ensemble becomes too low to be meaningful. This is called filter degeneracy . It has given importance sampling a low profile until resampling was (re)invented, see later on. In a naive example, van Leeuwen and Evensen (1996) applied importance sampling in a two-layer quasigeostrophic model of the perturbed baroclinic jet with a state dimension of 6400. Unaware of the statistical literature

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

–5574, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00729.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00729.1 Sakaguchi , K. , J. Lu , L. R. Leung , C. Zhao , Y. Li , and S. Hagos , 2016 : Sources and pathways of the upscale effects on the Southern Hemisphere jet in MPAS-CAM4 variable-resolution simulations . J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. , 8 , 1786 – 1805 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2016MS000743 . 10.1002/2016MS000743 Schluter , J. U. , and H. Pitsch , 2005 : Antialiasing filters for coupled Reynolds

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