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Pieter Groenemeijer, Christian Barthlott, Ulrich Corsmeier, Jan Handwerker, Martin Kohler, Christoph Kottmeier, Holger Mahlke, Andreas Wieser, Andreas Behrendt, Sandip Pal, Marcus Radlach, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Jörg Trentmann

-dimensional variational assimilation of water vapor differential absorption lidar data: The first case study within IHOP_2002. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 209 – 230 . Wulfmeyer , V. , and Coauthors , 2008 : The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): A research project for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 89 , 1477 – 1486 . Yuter , S. E. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 1995 : Three-dimensional kinematic and

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Raul A. Valenzuela and David E. Kingsmill

problem by examining ground-based scanning Doppler radar observations along and offshore of the Northern California coastal mountains during a significant landfalling winter storm to detail the three-dimensional kinematic and precipitation structure associated with a TTA. The structures presented in their study showed that the TTA was responsible for upstream lifting of an LLJ. Furthermore, VK15 documented a precipitation enhancement zone roughly 30 km offshore and nearly parallel to the coast

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Jessica M. Kleiss and W. Kendall Melville

kinematics of the breaking waves would be useful for a more detailed description of wave energy dissipation, momentum, and gas transfer. In 1985, Phillips proposed a statistical measure of wave breaking, Λ( c ), such that Λ( c ) d c is the average total length per unit sea surface area of breaking fronts that have velocities in the range of c to c + d c . In the following discussion, c = ( c , θ ) is the breaking velocity, with magnitude c and direction θ . It follows that the distribution

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Jaclyn N. Brown, J. Stuart Godfrey, and Andreas Schiller

concerned here with the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) and South Equatorial Current (SEC), as they account for most of the depth-integrated flow. There is also intense time-mean upwelling, to feed the poleward Ekman flows on either side of the equator. However, meridional flow near the equator is neither well measured observationally, nor well understood theoretically. Our aim is to explore the kinematics of near-equatorial Pacific flow in an eddy-permitting global ocean model. Understanding meridional

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Monthly Weather ReviewVOLUME 99, NUMBER 10OCTOBER 1971UDC 661.M18.2:661.611.2AN ANALYSIS OF KINEMATIC VERTICAL MOTIONS PHILLIP J. SMITHDepartment of Geosciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.ABSTRACTSeveral techniques exist for computing vertical motions. In this paper, radiosonde wind observations are usedto compute vertical motions by the kinematic method. The presence of cumulative bias errors necessitates adjustmenttechniques. Simple tests of two techniques indicate that, for

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P. B. Smit, T. T. Janssen, and T. H. C. Herbers

1. Introduction Wave-induced near-surface kinematics of nonlinear random waves are important, for example, for understanding remote sensing signals (e.g., Rascle et al. 2014 ) and for interpreting motions of wave-following instruments (e.g., Herbers et al. 2012 ; Herbers and Janssen 2016 ), wave forcing on offshore structures (e.g., Donelan et al. 1992 ; Schløer et al. 2011 ; Deng et al. 2016 ), oil droplet transport (e.g., Geng et al. 2016 ), and wave-driven surface flows and Stokes

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Adam H. Monahan, John C. Fyfe, Maarten H. P. Ambaum, David B. Stephenson, and Gerald R. North

use EOF analysis as a tool to probe the physics underlying the variability in a geophysical field of interest. There is no problem with the use of EOF analysis to identify structures in geophysical data [from observations or general circulation models (GCMs)], which carry relatively large fractions of variance in the field under consideration. Problems can begin when these statistical structures are interpreted as being of individual dynamical, kinematic, or statistical meaning and are used to

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Sarah A. Tessendorf, Kyle C. Wiens, and Steven A. Rutledge

storm had completely dissipated by 0121 UTC. b. Kinematics and microphysics At the time of the first dual-Doppler observations at 2301 UTC, updraft speeds were near 20 m s −1 and by 2350 UTC reached a maximum of ∼25 m s −1 ( Fig. 3 ). During the gap in dual-Doppler scans, the maximum updraft speed(s) measured by the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) T-28 aircraft (in pass 3) was 12.5 m s −1 ( Holm 2005 ), though this may be an underestimate if the aircraft did not penetrate the

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David Farmer, Li Ding, Donald Booth, and Martin Lohmann

studies, it is a quite specific type of information that can only be converted into other variables such as flow velocity near the surface under certain assumptions. The validity of these assumptions may be open to question, especially in the case of large and steep waves. Here we describe an approach to the measurement of wave kinematics that exploits a bistatic Doppler sonar mounted on the seafloor. The present work grew out of a practical need to measure flow speeds in extreme waves relevant to

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Shyh-Chin Chen

of the atmosphere to the kinematic effects of orographicforcing by, in particular, the Tibetan Plateau-Himalayan Mountain complex. Theoretical scaling argumentsare used to deduce a critical mountain height h~ beyond which the component of flow around will dominatethat over the orography. The h~ is proportional to the meridional scale of the orography and depends on latitude.For north-south scales appropriate for the Himalayas hc ~ 1.5 km which is much less than the actual heightof 3706 m when

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