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J. P. Kochendorfer and J. A. Hubbart

-gauging network of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Sites were selected on the basis of quality and length of the record, as well as the record being “relatively free of confounding anthropogenic influences” ( Slack et al. 1993 ). While the USGS appears to have excluded gauge sites with substantial upstream withdrawals, flow regulation, and urbanization, analysis conducted in this paper suggests that many of the streamflow records bear a clear signature of rural land-use change. We present evidence for such

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Heiko Paeth, Kai Born, Robin Girmes, Ralf Podzun, and Daniela Jacob

in the low latitudes, may be the changing land cover in the form of land use changes owing to human activity like agriculture, shifting cultivation, pasture, urbanization, and transport infrastructure ( Feddema et al. 2005 ). On the other hand, land cover changes as a natural response to climate change, like, for example, albedo changes in high latitudes, may be crucial in the extratropical regions. Regional studies for the United States, China, and Europe have shown that urbanization, land use

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Ademola K. Braimoh and Paul L. G. Vlek

opportunity for international trade with neighboring Burkina Faso. It offers nonfarm employment for migrants from smaller localities. These same reasons have made Tamale and its environs a hotspot of land-cover change. Demand for housing is ever increasing, whereas food requirement for the increasing population has made urban and peri-urban agriculture increasingly important. In the face of competing demands for land resources, there is a need to understand the state and dynamics of land use/land cover in

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T. Davies-Barnard, P. J. Valdes, J. S. Singarayer, and C. D. Jones

1. Introduction Climatic analyses of land-use change have shown the importance of biogeochemical, biogeophysical, and combined land-use change (LUC) effects to world and regional temperature, water, and carbon cycles ( Bathiany et al. 2010 ; Betts et al. 2007 ; Claussen et al. 2001 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2010 ; Friedlingstein et al. 2006 ; Meiyappan and Jain 2012 ; Pongratz et al. 2010 ). Building on this knowledge, understanding of future LUC needs an integrated approach, considering the

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Abel T. Woldemichael, Faisal Hossain, and Roger Pielke Sr.

(hereafter, “dams” will be used interchangeably with “artificial reservoirs”) are used for water supply ( International Commission on Large Dams 1999 ). However, applications also include irrigation for agriculture, flood control, hydropower, land navigation, and recreation. Past civilizations have used dams for their various intended purposes. To date, large numbers of dams have been constructed at different regions in the world that vary in their hydroclimatology and land features (topography). To meet

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Sergey Malyshev, Elena Shevliakova, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Stephen W. Pacala

1. Introduction Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) has been long recognized as one of the factors affecting near-surface climate (e.g., Bonan 1997 ; Brovkin et al. 2004 ; Brovkin et al. 2006 ; Findell et al. 2007 ; Pongratz et al. 2010 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ; Kumar et al. 2013 ; Mahmood et al. 2013 ; Christidis et al. 2013 ). LULCC modifies surface properties, thus affecting all components of the energy and moisture budgets and contributing to the

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L. Huang, J. Zhai, C. Y. Sun, J. Y. Liu, J. Ning, and G.S. Zhao

1. Introduction As a primary anthropogenic activity, land-use changes (LUCs) influence regional and even global climates ( Pielke et al. 2002 ; Feddema et al. 2005 ; Diffenbaugh 2009 ; Fall et al. 2010 ; Mahmood et al. 2010 ) through both biogeochemical (carbon cycle and atmospheric CO 2 concentration) and biogeophysical (physical properties of the land surface, such as albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration) processes ( Claussen et al. 2001 ; Pongratz et al. 2010 ; Jones et al. 2013a

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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

et al. 2011 ; Hossain et al. 2012 ) points to the effects of large dams on changing the extreme precipitation patterns such as probable maximum precipitation (PMP). The probable maximum flood (PMF), which is an important factor for hydraulic design of dams, is dependent on PMP and the hydrology of the watershed. A key driver for modification of PMP and PMF during the postdam phase is the land-use/land-cover (LULC) change patterns that are both sensitive to mesoscale weather and surface

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Susanne Grossman-Clarke, Joseph A. Zehnder, Thomas Loridan, and C. Sue B. Grimmond

1. Introduction Urbanization is one of the most powerful and visible anthropogenic forces on Earth. Today there are over 400 cities in the world with populations of over 1 million and, in the foreseeable future, virtually all population growth is projected to occur in urban areas ( United Nations 2007 ). Expansion of cities to accommodate increasing population has global, regional, and local effects on weather and climate because of land use–land cover (LULC) changes and accompanying effects on

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Guixing Chen, Xinyue Zhu, Weiming Sha, Toshiki Iwasaki, Hiromu Seko, Kazuo Saito, Hironori Iwai, and Shoken Ishii

small-scale complex surfaces is likely to improve our understanding of both land–atmosphere interaction and local weather variation ( Maronga and Raasch 2013 ). Because of the limited knowledge on roll convection and the difficulties in resolving complex surfaces, a substantial challenge is realistically forecasting sea-breeze HCRs over coastal cities ( Ashie and Kono 2011 ; Chen et al. 2015 , hereafter Part I ). Complex surfaces are defined by two major aspects: land use and geometry. Land-use

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