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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman

well as profiles of Raman scattering by nitrogen, which provides the means of deriving aerosol extinction ( Turner et al. 2002 , 2016a ). Using the SGP Raman lidar observations, Ferrare et al. (2001) found that the extinction-to-backscatter ratio cannot be considered constant more than 30% of the time. From 2000 to 2007, a small aircraft outfit with basic aerosol in situ instruments was flown over the ARM SGP site several times per week. These flights provided an important record of the

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Beat Schmid, Robert G. Ellingson, and Greg M. McFarquhar

: Comparison between lidar and nephelometer measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site . J. Geophys. Res. , 111 , D05S15 , doi: 10.1029/2004JD005646 . Pilewskie , P. , and F. P. J. Valero , 1995 : Direct observations of excess solar absorption by clouds . Science , 267 , 1626 – 1629 , doi: 10.1126/science.267.5204.1626 . Ramanathan , V. , B. Subasilar , G. J. Zhang , W. Conant , R. D. Cess , J. T. Kiehl , H

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is successful); spectral ultraviolet measurements. Other instrumentation at the extended sites will be normal complement of weather station measurements such as surface temperature, relative humidity, winds, etc.; micrometeorological instrumentation for measuring the ratio of latent to sensible heat fluxes; whole-sky cameras for automatic measurement of cloud amount in coordination with satellite observations; lidar for measuring cloud ceiling at the site. Other measurements to be conducted in

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martina Krämer, Anna Luebke, Phil Brown, Daniel J. Cziczo, Charmaine Franklin, Paul Lawson, Ulrike Lohmann, Greg McFarquhar, Zbigniew Ulanowski, and Kristof Van Tricht

radiance measurements, owing to their thin optical depth and their frequent occurrence as part of multilayered cloud systems ( Sassen et al. 2008 ). With the launch of the NASA CloudSat and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation ( CALIPSO ) in 2006, cloud observations from space entered a new era. Both satellites are part of the Afternoon Train (A-Train) constellation, with CloudSat carrying a cloud profiling radar and CALIPSO carrying a depolarization lidar [Cloud

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Pavlos Kollias, Eugene E. Clothiaux, Thomas P. Ackerman, Bruce A. Albrecht, Kevin B. Widener, Ken P. Moran, Edward P. Luke, Karen L. Johnson, Nitin Bharadwaj, James B. Mead, Mark A. Miller, Johannes Verlinde, Roger T. Marchand, and Gerald G. Mace

cirrus case study periods showed that, at times, the upper troposphere contained an abundance of ice crystals that were below the detection limit of the Ka- and W-band radars. In the case of thicker cirrus, the radar and lidar observations of cirrus extent often coincided. These early observations during the FIRE Second Cirrus IFO campaign established the necessity of building cloud radars for the ARM Program with as much sensitivity as technically possible. 5. Mitigating the impacts of attenuation

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

design . Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. , 14 , 2823 – 2869 , doi: 10.5194/acp-14-2823-2014 . Tobin , D. C. , and Coauthors , 1999 : Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26μm . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 2081 – 2092 , doi: 10.1029/1998JD200057 . Turner , D. D. , 2005 : Mixed-phase cloud properties from AERI lidar observations: Algorithm and results from SHEBA . J. Appl. Meteor. , 44 , 427 – 444 , doi: 10.1175/JAM

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

evaporative and sensible heat fluxes from the surface through bulk formulas (e.g., Clayson and Bogdanoff 2013 ). In the last 25 years, engineering advances have allowed observations at the same time from a coordinated constellation of multiple satellites flying in formation ( Stephens et al. 2002 ; L’Ecuyer and Jiang 2010 ; Stephens et al. 2018 ). This breakthrough fostered the development of new integrated multisensor radiative flux datasets like CloudSat ’s 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR product ( L’Ecuyer et al

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D. L. Sisterson, R. A. Peppler, T. S. Cress, P. J. Lamb, and D. D. Turner

, F. V. , K. C. Crawford , R. L. Elliott , G. W. Cuperus , S. J. Stadler , H. L. Johnson , and M. D. Eilts , 1995 : The Oklahoma Mesonet: A technical overview . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 12 , 5 – 19 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(1995)012<0005:TOMATO>2.0.CO;2 . Campbell , J. R. , D. L. Hlavka , E. J. Welton , C. J. Flynn , D. D. Turner , J. D. Spinhirne , V. S. Scott , and I. H. Hwang , 2002 : Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observations at

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P. R. Field, R. P. Lawson, P. R. A. Brown, G. Lloyd, C. Westbrook, D. Moisseev, A. Miltenberger, A. Nenes, A. Blyth, T. Choularton, P. Connolly, J. Buehl, J. Crosier, Z. Cui, C. Dearden, P. DeMott, A. Flossmann, A. Heymsfield, Y. Huang, H. Kalesse, Z. A. Kanji, A. Korolev, A. Kirchgaessner, S. Lasher-Trapp, T. Leisner, G. McFarquhar, V. Phillips, J. Stith, and S. Sullivan

1. Introduction Airborne observations of ice crystal concentrations are often found to exceed the concentration of ice nucleating particles (INPs) by many orders of magnitude (see, e.g., Mossop 1985 ; Hobbs and Rangno 1985 ; Beard 1992 ; Pruppacher and Klett 1997 ; Hobbs and Rangno 1998 ; Cantrell and Heymsfield 2005 ; DeMott et al. 2016 ). In the 1970s ( Mossop et al. 1970 ; Hallett and Mossop 1974 ) the discrepancy between expected ice particle concentrations formed through primary

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Ulrich Schumann and Andrew J. Heymsfield

) has a negative skewness (see Fig. 3-5 ): A few contrails get thick while most have small τ ; some are subvisible, and only the thicker ones are observable ( Immler et al. 2008 ; Kärcher and Burkhardt 2013 ). Early studies assumed large τ values, based on a few lidar observations ( Meerkötter et al. 1999 ). Some global models suggest large fractions of subvisible contrails and τ mean values of about 0.05 ( Ponater et al. 2002 ; Grewe et al. 2014b ). The optical depth of contrails is often

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