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Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Emilio García-Ladona, and Jordi Font

Basin in the Western Mediterranean Sea has been selected to show the performance of the method. The mesoscale variability in the area is mainly due to the presence of long-lived mesoscale anticyclonic eddies generated from instabilities of the Algerian Current ( Fuda et al. 2000 ; Obaton et al. 2000 ; Salas et al. 2002a ). The characteristics of the Algerian eddies are large enough ( L ∼ 100 km) to be resolved by the separation of altimetric tracks, and their propagation velocity ( C ∼ 2–5 km

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Pierre-Marie Poulain and Riccardo Gerin

/tidal motions, including the mapping of the mean ocean circulation and seasonal/mesoscale variability ( Maximenko et al. 2013 ; Lumpkin and Johnson 2013 ) and the study of surface tidal currents ( Poulain 2013 ; Poulain and Centurioni 2015 ; Poulain et al. 2018 ). Drifter programs in coastal environments and in marginal seas have also been conducted in various regions, such as the Gulf of Mexico ( Ohlmann and Niiler 2005 ) and the Mediterranean Sea ( Poulain et al. 2012 , 2013 ). In addition, surface

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Giuseppe M. R. Manzella and Marco Gambetta

defined as a unimodal distribution. However, analyzing the data, it has been observed that multimodal data distributions do exist in different areas and depths (see sections 4 and 7 for further discussion). This could be due to the influence of different dynamic characteristics of the sea. For example, changes in thermohaline circulation of the eastern Mediterranean were observed during the mid-1990s ( Klein et al. 1999 ). Former conditions were restored at the end of the decade. The “signature

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Gérard Caudal, Danièle Hauser, René Valentin, and Christophe Le Gac

campaigns carried out for two meteo-oceanographic programs. The first one is the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX; see Drobinski et al. 2014 ) in the northern part of Mediterranean Sea, while the second one is the Prévision Océanique, Turbidité, Ecoulements, Vagues et Sédimentologie (PROTEVS) project devoted to observation and modeling of currents, waves, and storm surge with a campaign in the Iroise Sea close to the Brittany coasts of France. HyMeX is an international

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Ge Chen, Bertrand Chapron, Robert Ezraty, and Douglas Vandemark

the China Seas), the northwest Atlantic, the Southern Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Unlike swell, wind wave is directly related to local wind: the persistent westerlies in the Southern Hemisphere are responsible for the circumpolar wind sea belt in the Southern Ocean, while the extensive northwest gales from the main continents at midlatitudes during the winter half of the year are the primary cause of the seasonal wind wave generation in the Northern Hemisphere. As an example, strong winds

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Federico Ienna, Young-Heon Jo, and Xiao-Hai Yan

finestructure using multichannel seismic reflection data . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L11609 , doi: 10.1029/2008GL033971 . Bower, A. S. , Armi L. , and Ambar I. , 1995 : Direct evidence of meddy formation off the southwestern coast of Portugal . Deep-Sea Res. I , 42 , 1621 – 1630 . Bower, A. S. , Armi L. , and Ambar I. , 1997 : Lagrangian observations of meddy formation during a Mediterranean undercurrent seeding experiment . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 27 , 2545 – 2575 . Chelton, D. B

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Louis Gostiaux and Hans van Haren

Research (ANTARES): This ADCP is part of the ANTARES neutrino telescope that directly sends information to the coast using the submarine network developed for cosmic particle detection. It is downward looking in the deep Mediterranean Sea waters at a depth of 2300 m. The RSSI values are very weak and do not show strong backscattering variability (J. A. Aguilar 2010, manuscript submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. ). Processes above Continental Slopes (PROCS): The ADCP mooring was part of an extensive

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Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli and Rosalia Santoleri

). Pascual and Gomis (2003) focused on the estimation of the geostrophic transport in the western Mediterranean Sea, calculating the EOFs of the steric height profiles from historical regional hydrographic data and testing a method that uses both surface elevation and surface density to determine the amplitudes of the first two leading modes. The approach proposed by Pascual and Gomis (2003) allows the estimation of vertical profiles without introducing statistical regressions for the computation of

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Hans C. Graber, Eugene A. Terray, Mark A. Donelan, William M. Drennan, John C. Van Leer, and Donald B. Peters

this prototype design (model 1) would suffer signal degradation due to wave staff clipping for sea states with H s over 4 m. Consequently, the buoy design was modified by extending the length by 1 m in both the cage area and the lower pipe. Again using the heave transfer function, we estimate that the new (stretched) version will not suffer significant overtopping until the significant height exceeds 10 m ( Fig. 6 ). This new version (model 2) was deployed in the western Mediterranean during

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P. Fieguth, D. Menemenlis, T. Ho, A. Willsky, and C. Wunsch

1. Introduction The use of satellite altimeter data to study the circulation of the Mediterranean Sea is complicated by a poor signal-to-noise ratio ( Larnicol et al. 1995 ): the sea level anomaly signal is at most 10 cm rms in the energetic regions of the Mediterranean, while the residual altimeter noise, including orbit and atmospheric load errors, is of the order of 5 cm rms or more. By construction, the sea level anomaly signal, which is here obtained by removing a 4-yr temporal mean at

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