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Brian J. Hoskins and Kevin I. Hodges

the western Mediterranean and the Caspian Sea. Vorticity also picks up a genesis region to the north of Greenland possibly associated with katabatic winds, which are known to be associated with the generation of vorticity and mesocyclones on the slopes of high orography in polar regions ( Heinemann 1998 ). This is consistent with the fact that this genesis is only seen in the vorticity, pointing to the systems being small scale. The genesis regions off the eastern continental seaboards, near Cape

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Heini Wernli and Cornelia Schwierz

algorithm (cf. section 2d ). a. The Northern Hemisphere Figure 6 shows the results for NH cyclones with a track life time of at least 1 day. During winter ( Fig. 6a ), cyclogenesis is most frequent in the western Pacific (at 30°–40°N) with three local maxima in the Japan Sea, southwest and east of Japan, respectively, and in the western Atlantic (at 32°–41°N) along the U.S. east coast from South Carolina to Massachusetts. A third major region of cyclogenesis is located in the western Mediterranean

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Pinhas Alpert

the Mediterraneanclosely and are strongly associated with the lee cyclogenesis effects and the sea-land contrast (e.g., see Reiter1975). The WLB baroclinic waveguide is much fartherto the south. It is closer to the North African coast andis associated with the region of high teleconnectivityalong that region (see WLB, their Fig. 6a). In contrast,the Mediterranean high rate of alternation, Fig. 2, isfound somewhere along the center of the sea but fairlyclose and shifted to the north of the

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Gidon Eshel and Brian F. Farrell

a global correlation map spanning 60 months of total-column precipitable water in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data versus remotely sensed observations [NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP)]. Correlations exceed 0.90 throughout the NA, Mediterranean, and Europe, but drop somewhat to the south of the region of interest, toward the central Red Sea and the Sahara. Hence the dynamically consistent assimilated fields, while clearly imperfect, are the best currently available approximation to the true fields

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John M. Wallace, Maurice L. Blackmon, and Gyu-Ho Lim

the climatological mean sea-level pressure field (Fig.1). Only the Mediterranean stormtrack, which is lo I~G. 1. "Rate of alternation of cyclones and anticyclones," asadapted from Petterssen (1956), superimposed upon the wintertime(December-February) climatological mean sea-level pressure fieldbased on NMC operational analyses (1975-84). In the shaded regionthe rate of alternation is'larger than 0.75. Contour interval for sealevel pressure 4 rob.c 19:]9 American Meteorological Society15NOVEMBER

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Evangelos Tyrlis and Jos Lelieveld

. Episodes of strong Etesians can spawn forest fires that degrade air quality and damage the Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., Amiridis et al. 2012 ). The Etesians regulate air quality over the EM during the summer when boundary layer pollution standards are often exceeded owing to the transport of emissions from the European industrial zones and cities ( Kallos et al. 1998 ; Lelieveld et al. 2002 ; Kalabokas et al. 2008 ) and from biomass burning around the Black Sea ( Sciare et al. 2003

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Yizhak Feliks

circulationand vice versa. During summer in the coastal regions, sea and landbreezes are frequently observed (Atkinson 1981 ). Thedamping effect of the inversion on the sea and landbreeze was shown by Walsh (1974). However, thereare no observations that relate the inversion to the developing breeze. In the summer of 1987 two series of ship-based atmospheric measurements over the Eastern Mediterranean near the Israeli coast were conducted. Each series 'lasted 48 hours. Vertical profiles of temperature

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J. Neumann

+Fv, (2)is the large-scale pressure, p,~ the meso1914JOURN~AL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Fro. 1. Wind roses for Ashdod Port, July 1958-68. The lines point out into the direction from which the windcomes, the speed being denoted by the width and by the shading of the wind rose lines~ Ashdod Port is located onIsrael's Mediterranean coast, ~-~25 km south of Tel Aviv. In that area in summer., the winds are primarily sea andland breezes. Note that the rate of

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W. A. Hoppel

.06/~m in an air mass which moved 100 mi out to sea could be explained by coagulation and mixingwith marine air. The absence of particles below about 0.02 ~m on most occasions in marine air wasconsistent with the finding that the number of CCN active at 0.8% was nearly equal to the total CN count.1. Introduction The relationships between the dry aerosol sizedistribution, the change in the size distribution as afunction of relative humid/ty and the supersaturation necessary to nucleate aerosols of

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Jerome Spar

.The kinetic energy of the mean atmosphere in January and July was computed from (1) on the meanconstant-level charts for the northern hemispherepublished by the United States Weather Bureau andthe Joint Meteorological Committee [6; 101. Computations were made on each of the charts, from sea levelto 19`km, at grid points determined by the intersections of ten-degree meridians and five-degreeparallels. No measurements were attempted north oflatitude 70°N or south of latitude 20"N, partly becauseof the

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